大学英语语法专题讲座
Grammar: Finding a Balance
Lecturer: Li Jing Shandong Normal University
December, 2006
“Difficulties with grammar cause more discouragement and drive away more students than anything else in our profession.”
--Stevick (1998:
  82)
Introduction
关于语法学习的几个误区
(Misunderstandings about what grammar is)
→学习英语语法的目的 大学英语语法学习应该达到什么程度?
(How well should grammar be learned?)
→学习英语语法的范围 如何学习大学英语语法?
(How is grammar learned?)
→学习英语语法的方法
大学生英语语法学习中的常见误区(
  1)
第一,把某一技能的学习变成单一的看待。 语法学习不是孤立的,不应该跟听说读写译 (receptively and productively)等其他技能分离 开来。
语法与听说
Now let’s learn grammar happily!
语法与读写
作文题 You have to write a story for your English teacher. Your story must have this title: Winning the Prize
语法与读写
这几篇都是华侨大学大一学生的原版作文,虽然很有想象力,却也有很多语法错误:
One day, when I wander in the street without any goals, suddenly, I was taken roughly to a car, and then the strangers caught me, and let my eyes hidden under a black mask so that I couldn’t see anything. Some minutes later, I was aware that we go into a dark and cool room! And I heard some words of them: “Boss, we succeed, ˇson of Bill Gates has been catched by us, …”. “Well done, we can have a large sum of money.” In the moment, I felt I was full of energy just like ˇsuperman, then I beat them and took them to the police station. As a result, the government gave me New York as a prize!
语法与读写
One day, a lion named Jack was sleeping beside a tall tree. Just then, Jim, a cat, walk towards the lion, woke him up with a light pat and said: “Why don’t we have a game?” “Uh, that’s a great idea. But what can I benefit from it?” “A delicious meal.” “OK.” Nodded the lion. Jack stand up and walk towards the forest. They then saw a crowd of pigs playing together. The cat whispered: “Go and see who will be the first one to catch them.” Jack rushed out at once and catch a small unlucky pig. “Ha Ha, I win the game!” “Don’t be so eager. Now let’s see who can climb the tree with that meat.” With those words, the cat grabbed the meat and climbed to the top. The lion struggled to climbˇ the tree but he failed. “We have a tie, Jim. And what’s the next?” “Ha ha, the next stage is who can enjoy the meat as quickly as possible!” laughed Jim.
语法与读写
One day, a teacher call us to have a exam in order to look our English level. The exam is difficult, especailly the last one. The problem is let us write a story for your English teacher, but I don't know how to write. When I see the classmates have finished. I was nervous. At that moment, I think a ideal (idea), too. I write a good compitition (composition) to my English teacher.
语法与翻译
I’m going to be working all day tomorrow.
看样子明天我要工作一整天了
I will/shall work all day tomorrow.
我打算明天工作一整天
I’m about to work all day.
我就要开始这整整一天的工作了 (能看到,听到或感觉到立刻发生的事)
the boiling water the boiled water the boiled sweet
语法与翻译
He was killed by a heavy stone.
他被一块大石头砸死了.
He was killed with a heavy stone.
他被人用一块大石头砸死了.
大学生英语语法学习中的常见误区(
  2)
第二,把知识等同于技能。
语法学习不仅是简单的知识学习,也是一项技能。要学 会一项技能,核心问题是练。即“做中得学”,把知识 变成技能。
第三,把语言学习看作是针对各类考试的 训练。 第四,速成心理。
学习英语语法的目的(Snow,2003:1
  08)
● To gain a balanced view of grammar study, recognize the importance of accuracy in language use.
正确对待语法学习,认识到准确使用语言的重要性.
● To acquire both knowledge of grammatical forms and skill in using the forms.
掌握不同的语法形式以及使用这些形式的技巧.
● To gain both receptive control and productive command of structures.
能够接受和理解一定的语言规则,并运用这些语言规则去遣词造句.
弥补氛围难以在短期内培养一定语感的缺憾,比较经济 地获得英语整体的语感。
学习英语语法的范围
学习英语语法的范围,指的是学习英语语法需 掌握的内容程度。 求得对英语的整体感觉非常重要 。面不宜太宽, 点不宜太深 ,但是要明确各类实用语法的基本 脉络。
学习英语语法的方法
没有包治百病的医生,要选择好学习材料和学习方法。 语言是规律和例外的组合。 对语言的分析能力,实际上是以对语言的整体语感为基 础的,更是以对语言完整的整体语感为目的的。 要借助对母语的了解,琢磨汉语和英语的异同之处,转 而进行两种语言之间的由此及彼。 克服惰性心理和依赖心理。注意自学过程中的积累。 科学选择和使用工具书。
学习英语语法的方法
加强自主学习:学生不是消极被动接受知识的 容器,变“要我学”为“我要学”。
选择系统而比较权威的语法书
《张道真实用英语语法(全新版)》,配有《实用
英语语法练习与答案》。
《实用大学英语语法》,紧扣《大学英语教学大
纲》,按照语法项安排章节,同时书中以大量的考试 真题(CET-
  4、CET-
  6、研究生入学考试和TOEFL等) 为例对语法点进行详细阐述;最大的特点是将历年考 题进行了分类整理,按照考试要点列出以供参考,这 是很多语法书所不具备的。
《(全新版)大学英语语法手册》,(上外教育出
版社,2004年1月)涵盖面广,归类叙述详尽。重点在 补充提高,练习充足,有代表性。
薄冰语法及其他
注意的几个问题
看懂不代表学会 学会不代表用对 避免粗心大意 避免眼高手低 避免不求甚解
看看类似的情况:
I’m thank you all the same.(画蛇添足) Please sent it to me. I must to learn the book.
不要眼高手低
I was at the point of telephoning him when his letter arrived. A: We are requiring extra help. Can you give us a hand? B: Sorry, I only do what is required for me.
不要眼高手低
The most substances expand in volume when they are heated. To the finalists, Bob and I, the last high jump was the most difficult.
对决赛选手我和鲍伯来说,最后的跳高项目是最为艰难 的。
不要眼高手低

  1.on the point of doing
是固定词组,意思是“正要、打算”

  2. Require不用于进行时态; 要求某人做某事是 “require sth. of sb.”
  3.most只有在表示形容词最高级作定语时需加定冠词, 表示“大多数”没必要加the.
  4.应把Bob and I改为Bob and me, 因为它们是 the finalists的同位语,都作介词to的宾语。
不要眼高手低
The clerk told his friend that in spite of his inefficiency his boss was always referring to his lack of qualifications. He wondered why he had been appointed. The clerk told his friend that his boss was always referring to his lack of qualifications, though the boss himself was inefficient. He wondered why the boss bad been appointed. His father hit him in his face. (the) When I walk in the street, I always take my mother by her arm. (the)

  1. Her mother helped her solve the problem.
  2. After she entered the room, Mary flung herself to the bed.
  3. He bought pens, notebooks and such.
他买了钢笔、笔记本等等。

  4. His parents believed that he was a clever boy, but he wasn’t such in fact.
他的父母相信他是个聪明的孩子,但事实上他并非如此。
  5. I have that which you gave me. 我有你给我的那个。

  6. Virtue and vice are before you, this (= the latter) leads to misery, and that (= the former) to peace.
善与恶在你前面,后者导致不幸,前者带来平安。
1句中helped之后若用herself则指的是her mother, 语义不 同 2句中she指代的是主句中的Mary在主从句中,或有分词状 语的句子中,代词所代替的对象有可能在其后出现, 要 准确识别
  3.4句中指示代词such具有名词和形容词的性质,在句中 可作主语、宾语、表语、定语等。 5 句中that 指物的单数形式 6句为省略
避免不求甚解
例:
  1. Seeing is believing. To see is to believe.
  2.One and a half apples is left on the plate. One and a half tons of rice are sold. One and a half hours are allowed for exam.
  3. The dog runs at me. The dog runs to me.

  4.介词 with, by, in
The workers are paving a road with stone. 工人们正用石子铺路。(有形) "Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy" is a good opera. <<智取威虎山>>是-出好戏。(无形) The length is measured in meter. This board was cast in bronze not in gold. 这个牌匾是铜铸的,不是金铸的 有形with无形by,语言 、单位、材料in a prisoner in/with irons 戴/带/拿着镣铐的囚犯 in rags衣衫褴褛 in/with fear 恐惧(程度 状态不同) 恐惧 程度,状态不同 程度 状态不同 又如on the field 与in the field 又如
When they leave home, they don't know what to dothemselves.
在没有上下文的单句中,介词for, with, by都是可 以填的。 意思分别是:离开家之后,他们不知道能为自己 做些什么。 离开家之后,他们不知道自己能做些什么…
例:1995年6月四级第53题 The survival of civilization as we know is? threat. A) within B) under C) towards D) upon
全句意思是:“当今人类文明的生存正在受到威胁”。在 4个选项中,只有B) under表示“在……情况下”或“遭 到”。is under threat相当于is experiencing threat所以答 案是B) within的意思是“在……里面、在……以内”。 towards的意思是“向、对”。upon可以表示“在……后 立即”,但是不能与threat搭配表示“遭到”之意。
1997年1月四级第48题 one time, Manchester was the home of the most productive cotton mills in the world. A) On B) By C) At D) Of
答案是C) At。介词短语at one time的意思是“曾经、 一度”。其它的选项都不能与one time构成短语。
介词 + 反身代词

  1. above oneself 妄自尊大(多与get连用)
  2. among oneselves 相互间,共同
  3. below oneself 情绪沮丧
  4. beside oneself 非常激动,控制不住自己
  5. between ourselves 只限于我们知道而不外传,
私下说(主语一般为第一人称单数)

  6. for oneself 为自己;亲自;独自(此义有时可与by
oneself换用)
介词 + 反身代词

  7) in oneself 本身,内心中,本质上 Australia is a continent in itself. 澳大利亚本身就是一个大陆。
  8)of oneself 自行,自动地(不受外界干扰) He had not even thought of saying this, but it was suddenly said of itself. 突然脱口说了出来。
  9)on/upon oneself 负责,代行其职(多与take连用) You should not have taken it upon yourself to accept the invitation for the whole family. 你不该代表全家接受邀请。
  10)to oneself 暗中;单独,独自享用 Bill laughed to himself when John fell down. 暗暗发笑。 When one dines in a restaurant one likes a table to oneself. 独占一 张桌子。 The teacher left Mary to herself to solve the problem.
避免不求甚解-例5代词
人称代词并列时,出于礼貌,通常第二人称居前,第三 人称居中,第一人称在后。 You, Mary and I have already known about it. 但在下列情况下,说话人一般把自己放在他人之前讲。
  1.表示承认错误,承担责任,检讨工作时。
  1. It was I and John that broke the window. I and he are to blame.
  2. 代表国家或家庭时,突出元首或家长地位。 I and all the ministers warmly welcome Your Highness. 我和全体大臣热烈欢迎殿下。
避免不求甚解-例5代词

  3. 回忆往事,由自己联想到别人时。
Remember the time I and you drove into my hometown.
你当然还记得我跟你一同驱车进入我的故乡的情景吧。

  4. 别人与自己关系亲密时。
Play snooker together every Wednesday, I and George.
我和乔治每周三都在一块玩彩色台球。
避免不求甚解-例5代词
each 和every 的用法 each用来强调两个或两个以上的人或事物中的每一个都各有自己的特 用来强调两个或两个以上的人或事物中的每一个都各有自己的特 意为“各自,每人” 即可作定语,也可作主语、宾语、 点,意为“各自,每人”,即可作定语,也可作主语、宾语、 同位语。 只用于三个或三个以上的人或物, 同位语。every只用于三个或三个以上的人或物,意为“任何一 只用于三个或三个以上的人或物 意为“ 只能作定语。都作“每一个”解时, 强调个体, 个”,只能作定语。都作“每一个”解时,each强调个体, 强调个体 every强调整体;each可跟 短语,every只能作定语。 强调整体; 可跟of短语 只能作定语。 强调整体 可跟 短语, 只能作定语 I have read every book he lent me. 我
 

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