demonstrated that

  2)删去多余的词 It is a procedure that is often used. → This procedure is often used. There are seven steps that must be completed. → Seven steps must be completed. This is a problem that is… → This problem is… These results are preliminary in nature. → These results are preliminary.

  3) 不用短语,用单一词表达 a number of → many, several a small number of → a few are in agreement → agree are found to be → are are known to be → are at present → now at the present time → now
based on the fact that by means of despite the fact that due to the fact that during that time fewer in number for the reason that has been shown to be
→ because → by → although → because → while → fewer → because → is
if it is assumed that in color, e.g., red in color
→ if → just state the color, e.g., red in consequence of this fact → therefore, consequently in length → long in order to → to in shape, e.g., round in shape → just state the shape, e.g., round in size, e.g., small in size → just state the size, e.g., small in spite of the fact that → although
in the case of … in the near future in view of the fact that is known to be it appears that it is clear that it is likely that it is possible that
→ in …, for… → soon → because → is → apparently → clearly → likely → possibly
it would appear that of great importance on the order of owing to the fact that prior to reported in the literature subsequent to
→ apparently → important → about → because → before → reported → after
两种类型的复合句及其简化 有被动式从句与主动式从句之分 [被动式从句] He uses an instrument which is called a spectroscope. → He uses an instrument called a spectroscope (将定语从句简化为后置的过去分词短语作定 语)
[主动式从句] 例 The man who lectures on Thursday is an expert in dynamics. → The man lecturing on Thursday is an expert in dynamics. (简化为现在分词,作后置定语。)
再简化
被动式 Air which is compressed can be used for several purposes. → Air compressed can be used for several purposes. → Compressed air can be used for several purposes.
主动式 Malaysia is a country which produces rubber. Malaysia is a country producing rubber. Malaysia is a rubber- producing country.
带有 介词 + which 句子的简化
(
  1) at which → where Airport is a place at which special attention is paid to the weather. → Airport is a place where special attention is paid to the weather.
(
  2) by means of which → whereby A fuse box is a device by means of which excessive loads are avoided. → A fuse box is a device whereby excessive load are avoided.
Definition of thermal analysis A general term covering a group of related techniques whereby the dependence of the parameters of any physical property of a substance on temperature is measured.
(
  3) of which → whose
Venus is a planet of which the surface temperature is thought to be at least 200 ℃.
→ Venus is a planet whose surface temperature is thought to be at least 200 ℃.
?有介词 from, in, for 则不能简化 Laboratories are rooms in which experiments are conducted. ?有助动词的句子,不能简化 Here is a list of experiments which will be/ should be/ have been done this year.(这里是今 年要做的/ 必须做的/ 已做过的实验明细表。)
? 使 用 较 为 精 确 的 词 语 “ greater than” 或 “more than”,而不用不确切的“over”或 “in excess of”。例如:
greater than 50% not in excess of 50% more than 100 samples not over 100 samples more than 25mg not in excess of 25mg, not over 25mg
1 简明 2 富于变幻 3 辨析近义词 4 语法修辞及其他
2 富于变幻
比如,“称作”一词 Such fractions are called as non-freezing water. Such fractions are referred to as freezing bound water. This water is designated as freezing water.
再比如,报道、阐述、主张、确认
Conflicting data have been presented in literature concerning the compatibility of poly(vinyl chloride)PVC- and poly(methyl methacrylate)-PMMA. Thus, Schurer et al[1] reported PVC/ PMMA to be miscible only in blends having a PVC content greater than mass fraction of 60 ?, whereas Rozinska et al[2] claimed PVC/ PMMA to be immiscible. On the other hand, Parmer et al[3] asserted PVC/PMMA to be miscible over the whole range of composition showing a single glass transition, Tg, in the second DSC heating rate traces. Miscibility of PVC/PMMA has also been confirmed by Albert et al[4] by non-radiative energy transfer and NMR.
1 简明 2 富于变幻 3 辨析近义词 4 语法修辞及其他
3 辨析近义词
例1 absorbed by, adsorbed on adsorbed on(吸附于表面), absorbed by(吸收其中)。 如: …adsorbed on the surface of silver iodine. (…吸附于碘化银的表面。) water was absorbed by the sponge. (水被泡沫材料吸收。)
例2 accuracy, precision accuracy(准确度),示值(实验值)与被测 量真值(约定真值)的一致程度; precision(精密度),某一物理量多次测量值 的一致性(或称数据的分散性)。 例如: Although high precision was achieved, accuracy was low. ( 虽 然达 到 高精 密 度, 但 准确 度 低。)
例3 actually, in fact
在例句 “Actually, the reaction rates by employing some other methods were considerably slower, …” 中,对于科学论文来讲,这里使用in fact更为 合适。与书面语言相比,actually更多用于口 语。
例4 adjust, calibrate
calibrate的名词形式是calibration(校准),在 规定条件下为确定测量仪器或测量系统的示 值与被测量相对应的已知值之间关系的一组 操作。可以用校准的结果评定测量仪器、测 量系统的示值误差,或给任意标尺上的标记 赋值;有时把校准的结果表示为校正因子或 取校正曲线形式的一系列校正因子。可按上 述的校正对测量结果做调整(adjust)。例如: The results of the calibration permitted us to adjust the final result.(校准的结果允许我们去 调整最终结果。)
例5 common, general, ordinary, usual, routine common ( 普 通 的 , 共 同 的 ) ,α-Alumina monohydrate is a common component of many bauxites.(α-氧化铝单水合物是许多铝土矿的 共同成分。) general(一般的),One of the best and most general methods for preparing ketones in the aromatic series is the Friedel-Craft reaction.(制 备芳酮类化合物一般最好的方法之一是 Friedel-Craft反应。)
ordinary(普通的,通常的),如: Heavy water differs somewhat from ordinary water in certain physical properties.(重水在某 些物理性质方面与普通的水有所不同。) ordinary pressure(常压), ordinary temperature(常温)。 Usual(常规的),Under these conditions the end-point of titration could be found accurately in the usual way.(在这种条件下,按常规的 办法可以精确发现滴定终点。)
?以method为例: a common method a general method a usual method a conventional method
普通的方法 一般的方法 常规的方法 传统的方法
此外,routine(贯常的),如routine test(惯 常测试),是指按即定的程序开展的大量重 复测试。
例6 by means of, in terms of
by means of 与by, using, by using同义,表示利 用某种方法(手段,诸如IR, DSC, NMR, X射 线衍射等)开展研究、观测; in terms of 通常用在采用某种理论(说法)、 参数来解释实验结果。
例如: The thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of PES/PPS blends have been investigated by means of DSC and DMA. Sometimes, we have to study the miscibility of polymer blends by means of a combination of two or more methods in order to confirm the experimental results.
Fox equation interprets the relationship between glass temperature ( Tg ) and copolymer compositions. → The relationship between glass temperature ( Tg ) and copolymer compositions was interpreted in terms of Fox equation.
We have prepared the complex of title compound and discussed its thermal decomposition procedure by TG-DTG, DTA, SEM and IR techniques and the corresponding non-isothermal kinetics by means of the Malek method. → … in terms of the Malek method.
例7 curve, thermogram
curve(曲线), thermogram(热谱)。 thermogram的一种解释是,住院病人,例行 查房,体温的逐日记录。因此,以英国学者 为主的热分析名词委员会主张称热分析的记 录为“曲线”,而不称“热谱”。如DTA curve ( DTA 曲 线 ) , DSC curve ( DSC 曲 线)。
例8 derivative, differential
derivative(微商),表示某物理量P对温度T或 时间t的微商,dP/dT (或dP/dt ), 如derivative thermogravimetry(微商热重法) differential ( 差 , 差 示 ) , 如 differential scanning calorimetry(差示扫描量热法)。 differential thermogravimetry
例9
Determination, measurement
“测量” (measurement)是指对某物理量(如 空间、时间、速度、功能等的有关数值)进行 测试的过程,对地形、地貌的测绘也称测量, 可称测量目的、测量原理、测量方法、测量条 件、测量步骤等;而“测定” (determination) 是更着眼于测试的结果,取得待测的某种参数, 如比定压热容cp 的测定、动力学参数的测定、 熔点测定、玻璃化温度的测定、纯度测定等。 这种区别从如下英文的表述中也可以明显看出。
A group of techniques in which a physical property of a substance is measured as a function of temperature whilst the substance is subjected to a controlled temperature programme. (在程序温度下, 测量 测量物质的物理性质与温度的 关系的一类技术。)
The change in specific heat capacity as a function of temperature is measured and the characteristic glass transition temperatures determined from the curve thus obtained (测量比热容随温度的变化,并由此测得的 测量比热容随温度的变化 测量比热容随温度的变化, 曲线测定特征玻璃化转变温度。 测定特征玻璃化转变温度 曲线测定特征玻璃化转变温度。)
例10 different, various, varying
different ( 不 同 的 ) , various ( 各 种 的 ) , varying(改变……的)。例如: The results are clearly different. (结果显然不同。) We tried various(或several different)methods. (我们试过各种方法。) The effect of varying the condition was … (改变条件的影响是……)
例11 mass, weight
mass(质量),weight(重量)。 如:mass of the sample(试样质量,或简称试 样量),而不称sample weight(试样重量)。 重量在本质上与力是相同的,即是质量与因 重力而产生的加速度的乘积。
例12 usually, often, sometimes
它们在表现时间的频次上是不同的, usually, often, sometimes 依次为 “通常”、“常常”、“有时”,频次降低。 如: It was usually observed that … (通常观测……) It was often observed that … (常常观测……) It was sometimes observed that … ( 有时观测……)
例 13 standard material, certified reference material
standard material 标准物质, certified reference material有证参样(或称有证 标准物质)。 standard material用于检定仪器测量准确度的物 质;certified reference material用一种或多种 技术上正确的方法,鉴定了其特性值、具有 可溯源性并附有鉴定机构所发给的证书或其 他文件的标准物质。
例14
material substance sample specimen test specimen specimens 试料
ISO 11358: sample:
A small part or portion of a bulk material or batch of products intended to be representative of the whole. (样品:可代表整个材料或产品的一小部分 批料)
test specimen:
A complete product or single piece taken from a sample and used to carry out a test. In the case of bulk materials such as pellets, powders and granules: a portion taken from a sample and used to carry out a test. (试样:取自样品的一个完整产品或单 一件并用于进行测试。对于诸如板材、粉末 或粒子的批料,是从样品取一小部分,并用 于测试。)
用非常少量的试样 试样而又必须能代表整个 试样 样品,则要求必须制备成均匀组成的分 样品 分 析试样。 析试样
1 简明 2 富于变幻 3 辨析近义词 4 语法修辞及其他 (
  1) 时态、语态与人称 (
  2) 非谓语动词:分词短语或不定式短语 (
  3) 使用肯定句,不用“双重否定句” (
  4) 由which, that, where 引出的从句 (
  5) 不要在一个名词前用一串词进行修饰 (
  6) 词序 (
  7) 利用时态表示事件发生的先后关系 (
  8)介词
  1) 与描写实验过程有关的介词
  2)由相同介词引起的相互平行的对等结构
(
  9) “only”的具体含义视其在句中的位置而定 (
  10) 通常不应将诸如“different from”, “similar to”,“identical to”, “identical with”等惯用语 拆开 (
  11) 由“relative to”,“as compared to”, “as compared with”,以及单词“versus”引出的 相比较的第二
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