demonstrated that

  2)删去多余的词 It is a procedure that is often used. → This procedure is often used. There are seven steps that must be completed. → Seven steps must be completed. This is a problem that is… → This problem is… These results are preliminary in nature. → These results are preliminary.

  3) 不用短语,用单一词表达 a number of → many, several a small number of → a few are in agreement → agree are found to be → are are known to be → are at present → now at the present time → now
based on the fact that by means of despite the fact that due to the fact that during that time fewer in number for the reason that has been shown to be
→ because → by → although → because → while → fewer → because → is
if it is assumed that in color, e.g., red in color
→ if → just state the color, e.g., red in consequence of this fact → therefore, consequently in length → long in order to → to in shape, e.g., round in shape → just state the shape, e.g., round in size, e.g., small in size → just state the size, e.g., small in spite of the fact that → although
in the case of … in the near future in view of the fact that is known to be it appears that it is clear that it is likely that it is possible that
→ in …, for… → soon → because → is → apparently → clearly → likely → possibly
it would appear that of great importance on the order of owing to the fact that prior to reported in the literature subsequent to
→ apparently → important → about → because → before → reported → after
两种类型的复合句及其简化 有被动式从句与主动式从句之分 [被动式从句] He uses an instrument which is called a spectroscope. → He uses an instrument called a spectroscope (将定语从句简化为后置的过去分词短语作定 语)
[主动式从句] 例 The man who lectures on Thursday is an expert in dynamics. → The man lecturing on Thursday is an expert in dynamics. (简化为现在分词,作后置定语。)
被动式 Air which is compressed can be used for several purposes. → Air compressed can be used for several purposes. → Compressed air can be used for several purposes.
主动式 Malaysia is a country which produces rubber. Malaysia is a country producing rubber. Malaysia is a rubber- producing country.
带有 介词 + which 句子的简化
  1) at which → where Airport is a place at which special attention is paid to the weather. → Airport is a place where special attention is paid to the weather.
  2) by means of which → whereby A fuse box is a device by means of which excessive loads are avoided. → A fuse box is a device whereby excessive load are avoided.
Definition of thermal analysis A general term covering a group of related techniques whereby the dependence of the parameters of any physical property of a substance on temperature is measured.
  3) of which → whose
Venus is a planet of which the surface temperature is thought to be at least 200 ℃.
→ Venus is a planet whose surface temperature is thought to be at least 200 ℃.
?有介词 from, in, for 则不能简化 Laboratories are rooms in which experiments are conducted. ?有助动词的句子,不能简化 Here is a list of experiments which will be/ should be/ have been done this year.(这里是今 年要做的/ 必须做的/ 已做过的实验明细表。)
? 使 用 较 为 精 确 的 词 语 “ greater than” 或 “more than”,而不用不确切的“over”或 “in excess of”。例如:
greater than 50% not in excess of 50% more than 100 samples not over 100 samples more than 25mg not in excess of 25mg, not over 25mg
1 简明 2 富于变幻 3 辨析近义词 4 语法修辞及其他
2 富于变幻
比如,“称作”一词 Such fractions are called as non-freezing water. Such fractions are referred to as freezing bound water. This water is designated as freezing water.
Conflicting data have been presented in literature concerning the compatibility of poly(vinyl chloride)PVC- and poly(methyl methacrylate)-PMMA. Thus, Schurer et al[1] reported PVC/ PMMA to be miscible only in blends having a PVC content greater than mass fraction of 60 ?, whereas Rozinska et al[2] claimed PVC/ PMMA to be immiscible. On the other hand, Parmer et al[3] asserted PVC/PMMA to be miscible over the whole range of composition showing a single glass transition, Tg, in the second DSC heating rate traces. Miscibility of PVC/PMMA has also been confirmed by Albert et al[4] by non-radiative energy transfer and NMR.
1 简明 2 富于变幻 3 辨析近义词 4 语法修辞及其他
3 辨析近义词
例1 absorbed by, adsorbed on adsorbed on(吸附于表面), absorbed by(吸收其中)。 如: …adsorbed on the surface of silver iodine. (…吸附于碘化银的表面。) water was absorbed by the sponge. (水被泡沫材料吸收。)
例2 accuracy, precision accuracy(准确度),示值(实验值)与被测 量真值(约定真值)的一致程度; precision(精密度),某一物理量多次测量值 的一致性(或称数据的分散性)。 例如: Although high precision was achieved, accuracy was low. ( 虽 然达 到 高精 密 度, 但 准确 度 低。)
例3 actually, in fact
在例句 “Actually, the reaction rates by employing some other methods were considerably slower, …” 中,对于科学论文来讲,这里使用in fact更为 合适。与书面语言相比,actually更多用于口 语。
例4 adjust, calibrate
calibrate的名词形式是calibration(校准),在 规定条件下为确定测量仪器或测量系统的示 值与被测量相对应的已知值之间关系的一组 操作。可以用校准的结果评定测量仪器、测 量系统的示值误差,或给任意标尺上的标记 赋值;有时把校准的结果表示为校正因子或 取校正曲线形式的一系列校正因子。可按上 述的校正对测量结果做调整(adjust)。例如: The results of the calibration permitted us to adjust the final result.(校准的结果允许我们去 调整最终结果。)
例5 common, general, ordinary, usual, routine common ( 普 通 的 , 共 同 的 ) ,α-Alumina monohydrate is a common component of many bauxites.(α-氧化铝单水合物是许多铝土矿的 共同成分。) general(一般的),One of the best and most general methods for preparing ketones in the aromatic series is the Friedel-Craft reaction.(制 备芳酮类化合物一般最好的方法之一是 Friedel-Craft反应。)
ordinary(普通的,通常的),如: Heavy water differs somewhat from ordinary water in certain physical properties.(重水在某 些物理性质方面与普通的水有所不同。) ordinary pressure(常压), ordinary temperature(常温)。 Usual(常规的),Under these conditions the end-point of titration could be found accurately in the usual way.(在这种条件下,按常规的 办法可以精确发现滴定终点。)
?以method为例: a common method a general method a usual method a conventional method
普通的方法 一般的方法 常规的方法 传统的方法
此外,routine(贯常的),如routine test(惯 常测试),是指按即定的程序开展的大量重 复测试。
例6 by means of, in terms of
by means of 与by, using, by using同义,表示利 用某种方法(手段,诸如IR, DSC, NMR, X射 线衍射等)开展研究、观测; in terms of 通常用在采用某种理论(说法)、 参数来解释实验结果。
例如: The thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of PES/PPS blends have been investigated by means of DSC and DMA. Sometimes, we have to study the miscibility of polymer blends by means of a combination of two or more methods in order to confirm the experimental results.
Fox equation interprets the relationship between glass temperature ( Tg ) and copolymer compositions. → The relationship between glass temperature ( Tg ) and copolymer compositions was interpreted in terms of Fox equation.
We have prepared the complex of title compound and discussed its thermal decomposition procedure by TG-DTG, DTA, SEM and IR techniques and the corresponding non-isothermal kinetics by means of the Malek method. → … in terms of the Malek method.
例7 curve, thermogram
curve(曲线), thermogram(热谱)。 thermogram的一种解释是,住院病人,例行 查房,体温的逐日记录。因此,以英国学者 为主的热分析名词委员会主张称热分析的记 录为“曲线”,而不称“热谱”。如DTA curve ( DTA 曲 线 ) , DSC curve ( DSC 曲 线)。
例8 derivative, differential
derivative(微商),表示某物理量P对温度T或 时间t的微商,dP/dT (或dP/dt ), 如derivative thermogravimetry(微商热重法) differential ( 差 , 差 示 ) , 如 differential scanning calorimetry(差示扫描量热法)。 differential thermogravimetry
Determination, measurement
“测量” (measurement)是指对某物理量(如 空间、时间、速度、功能等的有关数值)进行 测试的过程,对地形、地貌的测绘也称测量, 可称测量目的、测量原理、测量方法、测量条 件、测量步骤等;而“测定” (determination) 是更着眼于测试的结果,取得待测的某种参数, 如比定压热容cp 的测定、动力学参数的测定、 熔点测定、玻璃化温度的测定、纯度测定等。 这种区别从如下英文的表述中也可以明显看出。
A group of techniques in which a physical property of a substance is measured as a function of temperature whilst the substance is subjected to a controlled temperature programme. (在程序温度下, 测量 测量物质的物理性质与温度的 关系的一类技术。)
The change in specific heat capacity as a function of temperature is measured and the characteristic glass transition temperatures determined from the curve thus obtained (测量比热容随温度的变化,并由此测得的 测量比热容随温度的变化 测量比热容随温度的变化, 曲线测定特征玻璃化转变温度。 测定特征玻璃化转变温度 曲线测定特征玻璃化转变温度。)
例10 different, various, varying
different ( 不 同 的 ) , various ( 各 种 的 ) , varying(改变……的)。例如: The results are clearly different. (结果显然不同。) We tried various(或several different)methods. (我们试过各种方法。) The effect of varying the condition was … (改变条件的影响是……)
例11 mass, weight
mass(质量),weight(重量)。 如:mass of the sample(试样质量,或简称试 样量),而不称sample weight(试样重量)。 重量在本质上与力是相同的,即是质量与因 重力而产生的加速度的乘积。
例12 usually, often, sometimes
它们在表现时间的频次上是不同的, usually, often, sometimes 依次为 “通常”、“常常”、“有时”,频次降低。 如: It was usually observed that … (通常观测……) It was often observed that … (常常观测……) It was sometimes observed that … ( 有时观测……)
例 13 standard material, certified reference material
standard material 标准物质, certified reference material有证参样(或称有证 标准物质)。 standard material用于检定仪器测量准确度的物 质;certified reference material用一种或多种 技术上正确的方法,鉴定了其特性值、具有 可溯源性并附有鉴定机构所发给的证书或其 他文件的标准物质。
material substance sample specimen test specimen specimens 试料
ISO 11358: sample:
A small part or portion of a bulk material or batch of products intended to be representative of the whole. (样品:可代表整个材料或产品的一小部分 批料)
test specimen:
A complete product or single piece taken from a sample and used to carry out a test. In the case of bulk materials such as pellets, powders and granules: a portion taken from a sample and used to carry out a test. (试样:取自样品的一个完整产品或单 一件并用于进行测试。对于诸如板材、粉末 或粒子的批料,是从样品取一小部分,并用 于测试。)
用非常少量的试样 试样而又必须能代表整个 试样 样品,则要求必须制备成均匀组成的分 样品 分 析试样。 析试样
1 简明 2 富于变幻 3 辨析近义词 4 语法修辞及其他 (
  1) 时态、语态与人称 (
  2) 非谓语动词:分词短语或不定式短语 (
  3) 使用肯定句,不用“双重否定句” (
  4) 由which, that, where 引出的从句 (
  5) 不要在一个名词前用一串词进行修饰 (
  6) 词序 (
  7) 利用时态表示事件发生的先后关系 (
  1) 与描写实验过程有关的介词
  9) “only”的具体含义视其在句中的位置而定 (
  10) 通常不应将诸如“different from”, “similar to”,“identical to”, “identical with”等惯用语 拆开 (
  11) 由“relative to”,“as compared to”, “as compared with”,以及单词“versus”引出的 相比较的第二



   科技英语翻译 科技英语常用句型的翻译 1. 表示假设、前提之类的句子 表示假设、 (1)Let △ABC be an angle of 90. (2)Suppose that a ray of light is directed from below the surface in Fig.41-1. (3)In Fig.1-3, assume that the weight of the members is negligible. Given that … Refer to … Provi ...


   楼家利 徐步青 王 雪 Brief Introduction 简介 Development of Hollywood 好莱坞发展史 The feature attractions of Hollywood 好莱坞名胜 Hollywood Film 好莱坞电影 Brief Introduction 简介 " Hollywood,which situated in the west coast of the United States of California in Los Angeles o ...


   科技英语 信息工程学院 参考书籍: 李白萍 电子信息类专业英语 西安电子科技大学出版社 刘晓娟 李国宁 党建武编著.科技英语.兰州:兰州大学出版社.2001年 第一章 科技英语基础 1.1 科技英语与公共英语的区别与联系 1.2 科技英语的基本特点 1.2.1 概述 1.2.2 科技英语的语法特点 1.2.3 科技英语的词汇特点 1.3 科技英语中数字及数学公式的理解与表达 1.3.1 数制的问题 1.3.2 数字及数学公式表达中常用的词汇 1.3.3 科技英语中常用符号及数学式的表达 科技 ...


   科技英语翻译 480 句 科技英语翻译 480 句 (一)时间 一,时间 1. When a wire is broken by bending it back and forth rapidly, some of the work is transformed into heat and the wire gets hot. 当把导线快速地(通过)来回弯曲折断时,部分功就转换成热,所以导线变热. 2. When the moon changes it position, so do the ...


   English for Science and Technology 科技英语 Prof. Dr. Feng Shi 石峰 2010年8月30日 年 月 日 The importance of EST 科技英语: 科技英语: 用于科学和技术交流方面的英语口 语和书面语。 语和书面语。 Communication with your colleagues 与国际同行交流的工具 For researchers: reading literatures and patents 阅读文献和专利 gi ...


   Desert rose 江南 包袱 钢琴琴键上的童话 飞机场的十点三十分 怒放的生命 Servomotors are available as AC or DC motors. Early servomotors were generally DC motors because the only type of control for large currents were through SCRs for many years. As transistors became capable ...

科技英语 答案

   1. 无线网状网的首次应用是在社区接入网中,例如在加州的Cerritos社区,采用德洲Tropos Networks或Garland的设备,由NexGen City部署建网,所用的专用芯片来自MeshNetworks. ASIC=Application Specific Integrated Circuit为专门目的而设计的集成电路 2. 变压器是一种利用互感原理的重要实用装置。 3. 在19世纪,潮汐震荡和声重力震荡的理论曾经是饶有兴趣的课题4.增加了对成本极小化的刺激,成本更具透明度。 5 ...


   科技英语的翻译标准 译例分析 Velocity 速度) changes if either the speed 速率) or the direction changes. (速度) (速率) 假如力的大小或方向改变了,速度跟着要变化。 假如力的大小或方向改变了,速度跟着要变化。 如果速率和方向有一个发生变化,则运动速度也随之发生变化。 如果速率和方向有一个发生变化,则运动速度也随之发生变化。 Oil and gas will continue to be our chief source o ...


   科技英语翻译 一、时间 1. When a wire is broken by bending it back and forth rapidly, some of the work is transformed into heat and the wire gets hot. 当把导线快速地(通过)来回弯曲折断时,部分功就转换成热,所以导线变热. 2. When the moon changes it position, so do the orientation of the tide- ...


   中文科技论文所附的英文摘要的具体写作 方法 内容包含题名、摘要及关键词。GB 7713?87 规定,为了国际交流,科学技术报 告、学位论文和学术论文应附有外文(多用 英文)摘要。英语有其自己的表达方式、语 言习惯,在撰写英文摘要时应特别注意。 英文题名 1) 题名的结构。英文题名以短语为主 要形式,尤以名词短语(noun phrase)最常 见,即题名基本上由 1 个或几个名词加上其 前置和(或)后置定语构成。例如: The Frequent Bryophytes in the Mounta ...



   轻工中学七年级英语 610 单元试题 2007-1-2 听力部分 一、请听句子,在括号中选出你所听到的单词(A 或 B) (10 分) 1、On weekends, I often go to (A、movies B、operas). 2、Jackie Chan is a great movie (A、star B、actor). 3、I think Beijing Opera is (A、boring B、interesting). 4、(A、Who B、Where)is this gir ...


   年广东省江门一中高考英语语法系列动词时态和语态复习[整理] 系列动词时态和语态复习 2006 年广东省江门一中高考英语语法系列动词时态和语态复习[整理] 一、考点聚焦 1、动词时态考查要点简述 (1)一般现在时考点分析 ①表示客观事实或普通真理(不受时态限制) The geography teacher told us the earth moves around the sun. o Water boils at 100 C. 表示现状、性质、状态时多用系动词或状态动词;表示经常或习惯性的 ...


   浅谈初中英语课堂教学生活化 摘要:在目前的多数农村地区,英语教育尚显落后,大多数学生在英语 摘要: 学习方面存有难学、死学、厌学等糟糕的局面,这是摆在英语教学者 面前亟待解决的难题。 新课程背景下, 关键任务是做好英语教学的“生 活化”,要将教学活动置于现实的生活背景中,为学生创设良好的语言 环境和提供大量的语言实践机会,要尽可能多地为学生提供丰富的语 言材料和语境,将学生家庭、学校、社会的生活经历与课堂教学活动 联系起来,给学生生活与学习是一体的感觉。 关键字: 关键字:新课标 英语教学 ...

英语口语8000句 3 生病 受伤

   英语口语 8000 句-生病,受伤时 ●请医生看病 用叫医生吗? Do you need a doctor? Do you need a doctor? (用叫医生吗?) Yes, I think so. (是的,请叫医生吧.) Do you want me to get a doctor? Do you need any help? (需要帮忙吗?) 请叫救护车. Please call an ambulance. *ambulance"救护车". We need an ...


   2009?2010 学年度下期期中考试 ? 学年度下期期中 11. "你父亲是做什么的?" Which sentence(句子) is wrong(错的)? A. What's your father's job? C. What does your father do? ?Can he French? ?Yes, he can. A. speaks B. say C. speak D. talk B. What is your father doing? D. What ...