2002 年英语专业八级考试真题及答案 试卷一 (95 min)??? Part Ⅰ Listening Comprehension (40 min) In Sections A, B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your Coloured Answer Sheet.? SECTION A TALK? ? Questions 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section .At the end of the talk you w ill be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the talk. ?
  1. According to the passage, during the 18th and 19th centuries cities we are small in size mainly because .? A. the urban population was stable ? B. few people lived in cities? C. transport was backward? D. it was originally planned?
  2. Cities survived in those days largely as a result of .? A. the trade activities they undertook? B. the agricultural activities in the nearby areas? C. their relatively small size? D. the non-economic roles they played?
  3. City dwellers were engaged in all the following economic activities EX CEPT .? A. commerce B. distribution C. processing D. transportation?
  4. Urban people left cities for the following reasons EXCEPT . A. more economic opportunities B. a freer social and political environment? C. more educational opportunities D. a more relaxed religious environment?
  5. Why did the early cities fail to grow as quickly as expected through out the 18th century?? A. Because the countryside attracted more people. B. Because cities did not increase in number.? C. Because the functions of the cities changed. D. Because the number of city people was stable.?? SECTION B INTERVIEW? ? Questions 6 to 10 are based on an interview .At the end of the interview you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the interview.?
  6. According to Janet, the factor that would most affect negotiations is .? A. English language proficiency B. different cultural practices? C. different negotiation tasks
D. the international Americanized style?
  7. Janet's attitude towards the Americanized style as a model for business negotiations is .? A. supportive B. negative C. ambiguous D. cautious
  8. Which of the following can NOT be seen as a difference between Brazilian and American negotiators?? A. Americans prepare more points before negotiations.? B. Americans are more straightforward during negotiations.? C. Brazilians prefer more eye contact during negotiations.? D. Brazilians seek more background information.?
  9. Which group of people seems to be the most straightforward?? A. The British. B. Germans. C. Americans. D. Not mentioned.?
  10. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of Japanese negotiators? A. Reserved. B. Prejudiced. C. Polite. D. Prudent. SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST? ? Question 11 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.?
  11. The news item is mainly about .? A. a call for research papers to be read at the conference? B. an international conference on traditional Tibetan medicine? C. the number of participants at the conference and their nationalities? D. the preparations made by the sponsors for the international conference Questions 12 and 13 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item , you will be given 30 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news.
  12. The news item mainly concerns in Hong Kong.? A. Internet centres B. an IBM seminar? C. e-government D. broadcasting?
  13. The aims of the three policy objectives include all the following EXCEPT .? A. improvement of government efficiency B. promotion of e-commerce? C. integration of service delivery D. formulation of Digital 21 Strategy?
Questions 14 and 15 are based on the following news .At the end of the news item , you will be given 30 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news.
  14. Which of the following records was the second best time of the year by Donovan Bailey?? A.
  9.
  98. B.
  9.
  80. C.
  9.
  91. D.
  9.
  95.?
  15. The record shows that Bailey was .? A. still suffering from an injury B. getting back in shape? C. unable to compete with Greene D. less confident than before Part Three 答案部分 英语专业八级考试历年全真试卷 2002?? ? 录音文字材料、 录音文字材料、参考答案及详细解答 听力原文?? PART Ⅰ LISTENING COMPREHENSION? ? SECTION A TALK? ? The first area in American urban history extended from the early 17th cent ury to about 18
  40. Throughout those years the total urban population remained sm all and so with the cities. At the first federal census in 1790, city dwellers made up nearly
  5.1% of the total population and only two places had more than 25 ,000 inhabitants. Fifty years later only
  10.8% of the national population fell i nto the urban category and only one city, New York, contained more than 250,000 people. Largely because of the unsophisticated modes of transportation, even the more populous places in the early 19th century remained small enough that peop le could easily walk from one end of the city to the other in those days.? Though smaller in modern standards these walking cities, as it were, perfor med a variety of functions in those days. One was economic. Throughout the pre-mod ern era, this part of urban life remained so overwhelmingly commercial that almo st every city owed its development to trade. Yet city dwellers concerned themsel ves not only with promoting agricultural activities in their own areas, they als o collected and processed goods from these areas and distributed them to other c ities. From the beginning line and increasingly in the 18th and early 19th centu ries, cities served as centres of both commerce and simple manufacturing.? Apart from the economical functions, the early cities also had important no n-economic functions to play. Since libraries, museums, schools and colleges wer e built and needed people to go there to visit or to study, cities and the large early towns with their concentration of population tended to serve as centres o feducational activities and as places from which information was spread to th e countryside. In addition, the town with people of different occupational, ethn ic, racial and religious affiliations became focuses of formal and informal organi zations which were set up to foster the security and to promote the interests an d influence of each group. In those days the pre-industrial city in America func tioned as a complex and varied organizing element in American life, not as a sim ple, heterogeneous and sturdy union.? The variety of these early cities was reinforced by the nature of their loc ation and by the process of town
spreading. Throughout the pre-industrial period of American history, the city occupied sites on the eastern portion of the the largely under-developed continent, and settlement on the countryside generally followed the expansion of towns in that region. The various interest groups in e ach city tended to compete with their counterparts in other cities for economic, social and political control first nearby and later more distant and larger are as. And always there remained the underdeveloped regions to be developed through the establishment of new towns by individuals and groups. These individuals and groups sought economic opportunities or looked for a better social, political o r religious atmosphere. In this sense, the cities better developed a succession of urban frontiers. While this kind of circumstance made Americans one o f the most prolific and self-conscious city-building peoples of their time, it d id not retard the steadily urbanizing society in the sense that decade by decade an ever larger proportion of the people lived in cities.? In 1680 an estimated 9 to 10 percent of American colonists lived in urban s ettlements. A century later, that was the end of the 18th century, though 24 pla ces had 2500 persons or more, city dwellers accounted for only
  5.1% of the total population. For the next thirty years, the proportion remained relatively stabl e and it was not until 1830 that the urban figure moved back up to the level of 16
  90.? In short, as the number of cities increased after 1680, they sent large num bers of people into the countryside and their ratainers. Nonetheless the continuous movement of people into and out of the cities made life in the many but relativ ely small places lively and stimulating. SECTION B INTERVIEW? ? M: I'm talking to Janet Holmes who has spent many years negotiating fo r several well-known national and multi-national companies. Hello, Janet. W: Hello.? M:Now Janet, you've experienced and observed the negotiation strategies used by people from different countries and speakers of different languages. So befor e we comment on the differences, could I ask you to comment, first of all, on what such encounters have in common?? W:OK, well, I'm just going to focus on the situations where people are speakin g English in international business situations. M: I see. Now, not every one speaks to the same degree of proficiency. Maybe tha t affects the situation.? W: Yes, perhaps. But that is not always so significant. Well, because, I mean, n egotiations between business partners from different countries normally mean we have negotiations between individuals who belong to distinct cultural traditions M: Oh, I see.? W: Well, every individual has a different way of performing various tasks in eve ryday life.? M: Yes, but, but isn't it the case that in the business negotiation, they must c ome together and work together to a certain extent. I mean, doesn't that level up the style of, the style of differences or somewhat?? W: Oh, I am not so sure. I mean there're people in the so-called Western World w ho say that in the course of the past 30 or 40 years, there are a lot of things that have changed a great deal globally, and that as a consequence, national differences had diminished, giving way to some sort of international Amer icanized style.?
M: Yeah, I've heard that. Now some people say this Americanized style has acted as a model for local patterns.? W: Maybe it has, maybe it hasn't. Because on the one hand, there does appear to be a fairly unified even uniform style of doing business with certain basic pri nciples and preferences, you know, like "time is money", that sort of thing. B ut at the same time, it is very important to remember the way all retain aspects of national characteristics. But it is the actual behaviour that we will talk a bout here. We shouldn't be too quick to generalize that to national characteris tic and stylistic type. It doesn't help much.? M: Yeah. You mentioned Americanized style. What is particular about American st yle of business bargaining or negotiating?? W: Well, I've noticed that, for example, when Americans negotiate with people f rom Brazil, the American negotiators make their points in a direct, sophistical way.? M: I see.? W: While Brazilians make their points in a more indirect way.? M: How?? W: Let me give you an example. Brazilian importers look at people they're talki n g to straight in the eyes a lot. They spend time on what some people thinks to b e background information. They seem to be more indirect.? M: Then, what about the American negotiators?? W: American style of negotiating, on the other hand, is far more like that of po int-making; first point, second point, third point, and so on. Now of course, th is isn't the only way in which one can negotiate and there's absolutely no reason why t his should be considered as the best way to negotiate.? M: Right. Americans seem to have a different style, say, even from the British, do n't they?? W: Exactly, which just show how careful you must be about generalizing. I mean, how about asking you explain how the American negotiators are seen as informal, and so metimes much too open. For British eyes, Americans are too direct even blunt.? M: Is that so?? W: Yeah, at the same time, the British too. German negotiators can appear direc t and uncompromising in the negotiations, and yet if you experience Germans and Americans negotiating together, it often is the Americans who are too blunt for the German negotiators.? M: Fascinating! So people from different European countries use different styles , don't they?? W: That's right.? M: OK. So what about the Japanese then? I mean, is their style different from th e Americans and Europeans?? W: Oh, well, yes, of course. Many Europeans nod its extreme politeness of their Japanese counterpart, the way they avoid giving the slightest defense, you know. They're also very reserved to people they don't know well. At the first meeti ng s American colleagues have difficulties in finding the right approach sometimes. But then when you meet the Japanese negotiators again, this initial impression tends to disappear. But it is perhaps true to say the average Japanese business person does choose his or her words really very carefully.? M: So can we say that whatever nationalities you are dealing with, you need to r emember that different nationalities negotiate in different ways?? W: Well it's perhaps more helpful to bear in mind that different people behave i n negotiating in different
 

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