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十一, 十一,状语从句 种 类 从属连词 When whenever 例 句 说 明 When I came into the room, he was writing a letter.当我进屋时,他正 when 指的是"某一具体的时间" 在写信. whenever 指的是"在任何时间" We shall go there whenever we are free.我们什么时间有空,我们就 去那里. I was walking along the street when suddenly someone patted me on when 意为"这时"或"在那个时候",可以 the shoulder from behind.我正在街上走着,这时忽然有人从后面拍 看作是并列句,这种用法的 when 分句一般 我的肩膀. 位于句末. While it was raining, they went out.天下雨的时候,他们出去了. I stayed while he was away.他不在的时候我在. He hurried home, looking behind as he went. 他赶快回家,不时地一边走一边向后看. Be a pupil before you become a teacher.先做学生,再做先生. He arrived after the game started.比赛开始后,他到了. We waited till (until)he came back .我们一直等到他回来. 如主句动词是持续性动作,常用肯定式, 表示"直到…为止" while 指"在某一段时间里""在…期间" , , while 引导的动作必须是持续性的 as 引导持续性动作,强调主句和从句的动 作同时发生
when
while 时 间 状 从 as before after till
until
She didn't stop working until eleven o'clock .她到 11 点钟才停止工 如主句动词是瞬间动词,常用否定式,表 作. 示"直…才" "在…以前不",从句放在句首 Until he had passed out of sight, she stood there. 表示强调,一般用 until 她站在那里看着,直到看不见他的身影. 状语从句在主句之前时一般用逗号与主句 自从 1978 年以来中国发生了巨大的变化. 分开,如从句在主句之后则不必用标点符 As soon as I arrive in Shanghai, I'll write to you.我一到上海就给你写 号. 信. Great changes have taken place in China since 19
  78.
since as soon as
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hardly…when no sooner…than
I had hardly got home when it began to rain. hardly…when 和 no sooner…than 的意义相 我刚一到家, 就下雨了. =Hardly had I got home when it began to rain. 当于 as soon as,但只表示过去发生的事情, No sooner had we got to the station than the train left. 主句为过去完成时,从句为过去时,如 我们刚到车站,火车就走了. hardly 或 no sooner 位于句首时语气强,而 Hardly had we begun when we were told to stop.我们刚开始就被叫 且主句的谓语要用部分倒装 停.
Every time I travelled by boat, I got seasick.我每次乘船都晕船. 在时间状语从句中,不能用将来时或过去 every time, by the The moment I heard the song, I felt cheerful. 将来时,而要用现在时或过去时代替将来 时 time, the moment 等 我一听到这首歌,就感到很愉快. Next time you come ,you'll see him.下次你来的时候,就会见到他. 地 点 状 从 where wherever Where there is a will, there is a way.有志者,事竟成. where 与 wherever 意义基本相同,但后者 Where there is water there is life.哪里有水,哪里就有生命. 语气较强,多用于书面语 You are free to go wherever you like.你可以随意到你喜欢的任何地 方去. Wherever you go, you must obey the law.无论你去哪都要遵守法律. I came back late yesterday because I was on duty.昨天我回来晚了, because 用来回答 why 的问题,语气最强 因 为我值班. Since everyone is here, let's begin our meeting.既然大家都到了,我 since 表示既然或全已知的理由,稍加分析即 们开始开会. 可表明的原因,多放句首 As he didn't know much English, he looked up the word in the 从句常放在句首,说明原因,主句说明结 dictionary . 果,常用于口语中. 由于他英语懂得不多,他在字典中查阅这个单词. Now (that) the weather has cleared up, we can start our journey. 鉴于天气已经晴朗,我们可以启程了. Seeing (that) he was badly ill, we sent for the doctor. 鉴于他病情严重,我们派人去请医生去了. seeing (that), now that 和 since, as 意义相 似, 他们都有 "鉴于某个事实" 的意思, that 可以省去
because since 原 因 状 从
as
now that, seeing that
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that 目 的 状 从 in order that lest = for fear that so that 结 果 状 从 such…that so…that so that
I shall write down your telephone number that I may not forget. 我要把你的电话号码记下来,以免忘记. We'll tell you the truth so that you can judge for yourself. 我把真实情况告诉你,使你能自己作出判断. They worked harder than usual in order that they could finish the work ahead of time .他们比往常更加努力工作,为了能提前完成工作. Put on more clothes lest (= for fear that ) you should catch cold. 多穿点衣服,以免感冒.
目的状语从句中常用情态动词 may (might) can (could) ,should 等放在动词之前,从句 往往放在主句之后,主从句之间不用任何 标点符号
if 条 件 状 从 as/so long as in case so far as unless
We turned up the radio, so that everyone heard the news. so that 前有逗号为结果状语从句 我们把收音机的音量放大,大家都听到了新闻. so…that 的 so 后面跟形容词或副词 He was so excited that he couldn't say a word. 他十分激动,以致一句话都说不出来. He gave such important reasons that he was excused. such…that 的 such 后面跟名词,如果名词 他说出了这么重要的理由,得到大家的谅解. 是单数就要用 such a /an…that 还可以转换 It is such an interesting novel that all of us want to read it. 用 so…that,语气较强 It is so interesting a novel that all of us want to read it. 这是一本十分有趣的书,大家都想看. Difficulties are nothing if we are not afraid of them. unless 从句的谓语只能用肯定式.unless 和 如果我们不怕困难,困难就算不了什么了. if…not 同义,unless 是书面语,if…not 是 We shall go there tomorrow unless it rains.除非下雨,我们明天就去 口语,通常二者可以换用 那里. 条件状语从句中的谓语动词的时态一般要 = We shall go there tomorrow if it doesn't rain. 用现在时或过去时代替一般将来时或过去 So/As long as you work hard, you will succeed. 将来时 只要你努力工作,你就一定能成功. In case I forget, please remind me about it .万一我忘了,请提醒我一 下. So far as I know, the book will be published next month.
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方 式 状 从
让 步 状 从
据我所知,那本书下月出版. as Draw a cat as I taught you .按照我教你的画一只猫. 此处 as 译为:按照或正如 Do as you are told.按照人家告诉你做的去做. as if 或 as though 的意义和用法基本一样. as if… She looks as if she is ill.看上去她好象是生病了. 从句中可以用现在时表示可能符合事实, as though He acted as if (though) nothing had happened.他的行动就好象什么 也可以用虚拟语气 也没有发生. They treat the black boy as if (though) he were an animal. 他们对待这黑孩子仿佛他是一头牲口. Although (Though) he was over sixty, (yet) he began to learn French. 在句子中一般用了"虽然"就不能再用"但 although 虽然他六十多岁了,但仍开始学习法语 . 是" (but) 但可以与 yet 或 still 连用. though though We were not tired though (although) we had worked all day. / although 意义相同,用法基本一样,前者 虽然我们干了一天活,但并不累. 通俗,口语化,后者正式多放主句的前面 I'll go even if (though) it rains tomorrow.即使明天下雨,我也要去. even if 和 even though 的意思为 "即使" 纵 " even if,even though 使"有退一步设想的意味,多用于书面语 中 Child as he is , he knows a lot .虽然他是一个孩子,但他懂得很多. as 引出的状语从句多用于书面语,它比用 Cold as it is, (= Though it is cold,)the children play outdoors. though 或 although 引导的从句,语气强, as 虽然天气冷,但孩子们仍在户外玩. 更有表现力,从句常放在句首,语序部分 倒装. Do it no matter what others say.不管别人怎么说,尽管干. no matter……与 who-ever 引导的让步状 no matter (who, No matter how busy he was, he studied English every day. 语从句意义基本一 样,no matter……引导 what when, where 不管他多忙,他都每天坚持学习英语. 的从句可是以位于主句前或主句后 which, how…) No matter who takes up the matter for me ,I shall be very grateful. 不管谁为我处理这件事,我都将非常感激. wh+ever (whatever Whatever happens / may happen , we shall not lose heart. whoever ,whenever 无论发生什么,我们都不要失去信心. whichever ,however) Whoever comes, he will be welcome.无论谁来,都会受到欢迎.
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as…as , not so/as…as the same…as such…as 比 较 状 从
…than…
the more …the more…
Mary is as old as my sister.玛利和我姐姐一样大. 连词表示同程度级的比较,肯定句用 as… He doesn't run so (as) fast as Jack (does).他不如杰克跑得那样快. as 否定句可用 not as…as 或 not so…as His book is the same as mine.他的书和我的一样. Henry is not such a good worker as Peter .享利这个工人不如彼得那 样好. She has made greater progress this year than she did last year. 她今年比去年进步更大. He bought fewer books than I (did).他买的书比我买的少. The more you read, the better you understand.你看的书越多, 你懂得 the more…the more 意思为越…越…,通 的就越多. 常的语序为从句在前主句在后,这两个 the The more tickets you sell, the more money you will get. 都是表示程度的副词,用在比较级的形容 你卖的票越多,你的收入也越多. 词或副词前面 The harder you work, the greater progress you will make. 你工作越努力,你取得的进步就越大. The sooner, the better.越快越好.The warmer, the better.越暖和越 好.
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