、 -ing 形式作 宾语。
In case of fire, ring the alarm bell.遇火警时立即按警铃。
In case of rain(=In case it rains),they can't go.要是下雨,他们就走不了了。 In case of his being absent, we'll put off the meeting till next week.如果他缺席, 我们就会把会议推 迟到下周。
⑥in the case of 意为"至于、就……来说",是短语介词。
In the case of your debt, I'll pay it off for you.至于你的欠款,我会替你还清的。
catch fire; on fire catch fire 意为"着火",表示动作。on fire 意为"着火、在燃烧",表示状态。如:
Suddenly a pan of oil catches fire.
Soon the whole floor was on fire and it was impossible for people on the floors above to escape.
cause n.(大家为之奋斗的)事业
Helping the poor is a worthy cause. 帮助穷人是一项有价值的事业。 World peace is the cause he works for. 世界和平是他为之奋斗的事业。
cause v.导致,引起
  1)接名词:cause an accident/trouble/death/a fire/a serious illness/damage 引起事故/惹麻烦/导 致死亡/引起大火/导致重病/造成损害

  2)接双宾语:cause sb.pain/trouble/damage 给某人带来痛苦/麻烦/损害
  3)接复合宾语:cuase sb. to do sth 使某人做某事 The sound caused me to jump back. 那声音吓得我向后退。
[应用]完成句子 ①什么使她改变了计划?
What her plan? ②地震使所有的楼房倒塌了。
The earthquake all the buildings .
Key:①caused,her,to,change ②cuased,to,fall
certain 某(些),仅作形容词用法。 ①He didn't come for a certain reason. ②A certain person called on me yesterday. ③She will do it on certain conditions.
some 也可以作此意讲,但前面无冠词 ①He is living at some place in East Africa. ②I've read that story before in some book of other.
chance

  1)用于短语: give sb.a chance 给某人一次机会;
have a chance to do sth.有机会做; miss a chance 错过机会; lose a chance 失去机会;

  2)用于句型: The chance is that…/ The chances are that…表示"有可能……" (句型中的 The 和 That 可省略) 。 如:
The chance is (that)she's already heard the news. 可能她已听到那则消息了。
Chances are that the new machine will arrive tomorrow. 新机器可能明天到。

  3)后接 of 或 that 从句表示"可能性"。如:
He has no chance of winning the match.他不可能赢得这次比赛。
There is a chance that I will see him.我有可能见到他。
[应用]一句多译: 那里有可能藏着蛇。
The chances are that there is a snake over there.
There is a chance of a snake hiding there.
There is a chance that a snake is over there.
change one's mind 该动宾词组意为"改变主意",其中 mind 常用单数形式。如:
If one always change one's mind, he succeeds in nothing. check out 清点;结账;核实;检查;开票提款
Ask him to check the information out for us.请他为我们核实一下信息。
We'd better check the whole room out in case it has been bugged . 我们最好检查一下整个房间以免有蛀虫。
The trainees checked out all right. 这些培训学员完全合格。
She checked out 6000 dollars.她提款 6000 美元。 come true 成为现实、实现 表示变化过程的系动词有:become,get,turn,而 be 表状态 区别:①He became(get,turned)angry when hearing the news.听到那消息他生气了。(从不…… 到生气)
②He was angry, because he heard some bad news. 他生气是因为听到不好的消息。
常用的单位量词
a piece of diary 一则日记;a sheet of paper 一张纸;a suit of clothes 一套服装;an article of clothing 一件衣服;a crowd of people 一群人;a basin of water 一盆水;a block of wood 一块木头;a cake of soap 一块肥皂; a bottle of ink 一瓶墨水;a grain of sand 一粒沙子;a group of tall trees 一片高树;a team of players 一队运动员; copy of China Youth 一分 a 《中国青年》a drop of oil 一滴油; loaf of bread ; a 一块面包;a pack of cigarettes 一包烟;a pair of socks 一双短袜;a tin of beer 一罐啤酒;a set of equipment 一套设备; bucket of water 一桶水; couple of eggs 两个鸡蛋; pile of old books 一 a a a 堆旧书;a bowl of rice 一碗米饭;a handful of sand 一把(少量的)沙 注意:上述单位量词本身具有复数形式,亦可被具体数字修饰,句中的谓语多用复数形式。
[应用]汉译英 ①搬家时成堆的旧书被卖掉。
②三条重要新闻刊登在头版。
Key:①Piles of old books were sold when we moved. ②Three pieces of important news were printed in the front page. 常用合成形容词构成形式;
(
  1) adj+n.+ed:cold-blooded 冷血的 middle-aged 中年的 simple-minded 头脑简单的,纯朴的
The white-haired girl was named Xi'er. 那个白毛女叫喜儿。
The milddle-aged woman is warm-hearted and is always willing to help others. 那位中年妇女是个热心肠,总是乐意助人
(
  2) n. +pres.p.(现在分词):English-speaking 说英语的 man-eating 吃人的 (
  3) n. + adj:snow-white 雪白的 world-famous 世界闻名的 (
  4)num.(数词)+n.+ed:four-legged 四条腿的 nine-storeyed 九层的 (
  5) n.+ past p.(过去分词):man-made 人造的 (
  6) adj.+ pres. p.:good-looking 好看的 (
  7) adv. + past. P. :well-known 著名的
chief/ main 两者都有"主要的"、"首要的"之意,但有区别。
chief 主要用于人,表示"为首的,有最高地位或权力的"。 main 一般说明事与物,可指某些具体的或抽象的东西。如: He is the chief policeman. 他是警长。 This is our main teaching building. 这是我们的主教学楼。
clear
(
  1)用作形容词,表示"清楚的,明白的"。如: in a clear voice 以清楚的声音;
be clear about sth.对……清楚,明白;
be clear to sb.对某人来说很清楚;
make one's meaning clear 说明自己的意思; 注意两个句型:A:make it clear that…声明,说明;B.It's (was)clear that…很明显(清楚)……。 (
  2)用作动词,表示"清除,清理,使干净"。如:
clear one's room/a table/a street/the desk 整理房间/收拾桌子/清扫大街/整理书桌;
clear away the dishes/waste 把餐碟收走/把垃圾清除 (
  3)clear up 的三个意义:
A.表示"清理,收拾,解决"。如:
The dustmen were busy clearing up the snow on the road. 清洁工正在清除路上的积雪。
This book has cleared up many problems for me. 这本书给我解决了许多难题。
B.表示"(天气)转晴"。如:
It's snowing now, but I think it will clear up soon. 现在正在下雨,但是我想天气很快会晴的。
C.表示"露出喜悦的心情"。如:
Her face cleared up as she read the letter. 她看信的时候面露喜色。
[应用]完成句子
①她对下一步干什么十分清楚。
She is what to do next. ②很清楚敌人是不会放弃他们的计划的。
that the enemy wouldn't give up their
plan. ③他明确表示他要离职。
He that he would leave office. ④在离开办公室以前,请把你的桌子整理一下。
your desk before you leave the office. ②It, is, clear ④Clear,up
Key:①clear,about ③make , it clear
clear up(天气)放晴,使明了,收拾整理,解决,了结
The sky cleared up just after the rain. 雨过天晴。
Don't expect me to clear up after you. 别期望我在你后面收拾东西。(收拾不要的东西)
The police haven't cleared up the murder case. 警察还没查清那件谋杀案。
His face cleared up as she heard the news.(引申义)
听到这个消息她脸上露出喜悦之情。
对比:clean up 打扫干净,整理,获利,赚钱
The students cleaned up the classroom after class.(打扫干净) 下课后学生们打扫教室。
cloth; clothes; dress cloth 指做衣服等用的"衣料、布"。一般作不可数名词。如:
I put a piece of wet cloth around my face and lay on the floor for about two hours. 注:用于表达特殊用途的布,如"桌布、抹布"等时,cloth 用做可数名词。如:
He washed a table cloth just now. clothes 意为"衣服",总是以复数形式出现,泛指身上穿的各部分衣着,包括上衣、裤子、内衣、 背心等。如:
Look at these clothes. They are on Mrs Green's clothes line. 注意:

  1)"一件衣服"不可说 a clothes, 应说 an article of clothing;"一套衣服"可说 a suit(set) of clothes. (
  2)clothes 前不可直接用数词修饰,如不可说 three clothes. (
  3)clothes 前可用 these, those, the, many, few 修饰,口语中可用 much, little 修饰。 (
  4)chothes 作主语时,谓语动词只能用复数形式。 dress 可用于可数和不可数名词,用于可数名词时,常指妇女、儿童服装、内衣或外衣等公共 场合穿的衣服。用于不可数名词时,统指"衣服"。该词可作动词,意为"给……穿衣"。如:
What colour is Mrs Green's dress?
He could not wash himself or get dressed.
combine; connect; join; unite 此组动词意为"联合、连接"。
combine 意为"结合、联合",指为了某一目的而把两事物结合在一起。如:
We must combine theory with practice.我们必须把理论和实践联系起来。
He combines botany with chemistry.他把植物学和化学联系起来了。
connect"连接",指用东西把两事物连接在一起,或两事物直接相连,二者仍保持原状。 The two cities are connected by a railway. 两座城市由铁路相连。
He connected the gas stove with gas pipe.他把煤气和接在煤气炉上。 join 意为"连接",指以线、绳、桥等把两物或两地连接在一起,和 connect 意思相近,也可指 两物互相紧密相接。如:
We had better join the island to the mainland with a steel bridge.我们最好建一座钢筋桥把这个岛 与大陆连接起来。
Where does this stream join the Changjiang River?这条河和长江在哪里会合? unite 意为"联合",指两种以上的事物结合为一体,有合二为一的意味,强调结合后的统一性。
The two companies will unite into one.这两家公司将合并成一家。
The whole family united to help him.全家齐心协力帮助他。 come about: happen 产生;发生。相当于不及物动词,和 happen, take place 一样无被动语态。
①How did this accident come about ?这事故怎么发生的? ②I don't know how the quarrel came about.我不知道怎么发生的争吵。
come across=meet with(meet…by chance/accident)无意中碰到,找到,想到
Perhaps I shall come across him somewhere in the park. 也许我会在公园的某个地方遇到他。
He came suddenly across an idea. 他突然有了一个好主意。
come down 下来,流传下来,倒塌,没落,病倒,减价
The song comes down to us from the 10th century.(流传下来) 这首歌是从 10 世纪流传到我们这一代的。
The roof of the house came down during the night. 我听说计算机要降价。
come out come out 是本单元需要掌握的一个重点词语,现在我们对它们的用法作一比较全面的了解。
(
  1)come out(= be published)出来;出版
I'll let you have a copy of my book as soon as it comes out.我的书一出版我就送你一本。
(
  2)come out (= to bloom)长出;发芽;开花;(使)开花;(使)繁盛
Spring comes, the trees turn green and flowers come out.春天来了,树变绿了,花儿开了。
(
  3)come out (= to appear)出现;出来
Ever since then, the bat comes out only at night.从那时起,蝙幅只在晚上出来。
(
  4)come out(= to win…)获得(名次)
I came out first in the examination.我考试得了第一名。
(
  5)come out(= to become known)传出,公之于众;(秘密)泄露
The truth will come out some day.总有一天会真相大白的。
(
  6)come out (= to be seen, as in a photograph)(在相片等中)显示;被看见
Mary always comes out well in photos.玛丽总是很上相。
(
  7)come out (= to be developed)冲印;冲洗
The boss said that the photos had been come out for a long time.老板说照片已经冲印出来很久了。
(
  8)come out (= to be removed; disappear)去掉;消失
Would you please help me to make the ink in my shirt come out?你能帮我把衬衣上的墨水渍去掉 吗?
(
  9)come out (to be on strike; to refuse to work)罢工
The workers came out for a pay raise.工人们为增加工资而罢工。
(
  10)come out (= to end in the stated way)后来发现;结果是
The answer to the question came out wrong.这个问题的答案后来发现是错误的。
(
  11)come out (= to express clearly)(意思)表达清楚
The meaning of his speech did not come out well.他讲话的意思不很清楚。
(
  12)come out (= to be counted)算出来;总计
The total expense(花费)comes out at 5000 yuan.总开支达五千元。 come to light 发现,暴露(= be discovered / exposed /found out / be brought to light)
Much more new evidence has come to light(has been discovered/has been exposed/has been brought to light),so the judges have to sentence the man to death. 新的证
 

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