2011 届高考英语知识点总结(
  4) 届高考英语知识点总结( )
② I do like you.我真的喜欢你。 ③She does work very hard.她学习确实很努力。 ④-Why didn't you tell him?你为什么不告诉他?
-I did tell him.我告诉他了。 do sb. a favour 或 do a favour for sb.给某人帮个忙,如果有 to do sth.则常用。
do sb.the favour to do sth.如: ①I wonder if you can do me a favour?我不知道你能不能帮我个忙?(没有说干何事) ②Please do me the favour to open the door, I want to go out. 麻烦你给我开一下门,我要出去。
do up 收拾(东西) 。整理、梳装打扮、系(扣)好…… ①He was so hurried that he did up his buttons wrongly. 他太着急了以致于扣错了纽扣。
②She spent a long time doing up her hair.她花了很长时间把头盘起来。
Do you think so? ① "so" 用 于 避 免 重 复 前 面 所 说 过 的 内 容 , 等 于 代 替 肯 定 的 名 词 性 从 句 , 可 与 believe,do,expect,fear,guess,hope,say,speak,suppose,
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think 等及 It appear…,It seems 和 I'm afraid 连用。
"Will they go to see him?"
"I believe so.(DI believe[that]they will go to see him.)" ② 表 示 否 定 时 , 用 not 代 替 so, 但 在 believe,suppose,think 等 动 词 之 后 , 如 I don't think(believe,suppose)so 等,通常仍可与 so 连用。 ③不能和表示确信、疑问的词语连用。
I doubt about it.(√)
I doubt so.(×) do walking 步行。"do + 动名词"结构表示"干某事,有较灵活的译法。
do reading(读书)/washing(洗衣服)/cooking(做饭)/shopping(买东西)/cleaning(打扫除)等。
Do what I told you to .
Don't be late again. Make sure the door is shut. 让对方做或不做某事时 dozens of 几十;许多。 ①She bought dozens of dresses.她买了许多衣服。 ②I've borrowed dozens of books for my daughter.我为女儿借了许多书。
doubt v.& n.怀疑,不相信
从句在否定句及疑问句中多跟 that 引起的从句,在肯定句中多跟
whether(if)引起的从句。 ①I doubt the truth of this report. ②They have never doubted of success. ③I don't doubt that you are honest. ④Can you doubt that he will win? ⑤I doubt if that was what he wanted. 该词作名词时有以下短语
beyond(all)doubt 毫无疑问; doubt 怀疑, in 犹豫, 不肯定; doubt 肯定地, no 想必; without doubt 毫无疑问,一定地
①The truth of the story is beyond doubt. ②I was in doubt about what to do. ③No doubt I learned a lot from that lecture. ④Without doubt these theories were all wrong.
dream vi.做梦,迫切希望 As he slept, he dreamed a dream. 他睡觉时做了一个梦。
e dream of peace.我们梦想和平。
拓展:dream a pleasant/sweet/horrible dream 做好梦/甜梦/噩梦
live a happy/quiet/hard/normal life 过幸福/平静/艰苦/正常的生活 die a glorious death 死得光荣
Do you dream at night?你晚上做梦吗?
dream of……多用于否定句中,"做梦也没想到,从未想到过"
I never dream of getting so much money. 我从未幻想过得到这么多钱。
We never dreamed that the film was so long. 我们怎么也没想到这部电影这么长。
dream of 迫切希望、渴望。
People all over the world are dreaming of peace. 全世界人民都渴望和平。
I don't believe your dreamy words.我不信你的梦语。 动词 + about read about 读到有关的内容;know about 了解;learn about 得知有关……;hear about 听说过; forget about 忘记有关……;talk about 谈论;argue about 争论;chat about 闲谈;tell about 讲 述有关……; think about 考虑; write about 写有关的……; joke about 拿……开玩笑; worry about 为……担心。
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Key:①I've read about the accident in the newspaper. ②I almost forget about this matter. 动词+at
动词+at, 其中的 at 多表示"目标,方向"。如: shout at 朝……喊;laugh at 嘲笑;throw at 朝……扔;shoot at 朝……射击;point at 指着;aim at 瞄准;call at 拜访;stare at 盯着;glance at 一瞥;take a look at 看一眼;pull at 拉,扯;arrive at 到达;come at 朝……起来;tear at 撕,扯
[应用]完成句子 ①别对那孩子大声嚷嚷,你吓坏她了。
Don't the girl. You frightened her. ②他被朋友们嘲笑了。
He by his friends. ②was, laughed, at
Key:①shout, at 动词不定式的省略
为了避免重复,我们常常把作宾语、宾补和谓语动词的一部分的不定式省略,只保留动词不 定式的符号 to。现将常见省略不定式的几种情况通过实例加以简析,供大家参考:
  1)-How about coming to my house?
-I'd love to if it doesn't give you so much trouble.
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在 hope, like, love, promise, want, wish 等词后作宾语的不定式常省略。再如:
You may go if you want to.
She can get a job if she hopes to.
-How about going hunting with me tomorrow?
-I'd like to, but I have no time. (
  2)Don't close the window until I ask you to. 在 allow, ask, tell 等词后作宾语补足语的不定式常省略。再如:
Don't touch the light unless your mother allows you to.
Don't plant potatoes until the peasant tells you to. (
  3)He didn't want to hand in his composition, but he had to. 在 be able to, be going to, have to, need to, enough to, used to 等后的不定式需省略。再如:
I don't sing much, now, but I used to a lot.
If you don't want to say anything at the meeting, you don't need to.
She didn't go out last night, because she was afraid to. 在 afraid, glad, happy, pleased, sorry 等词后作状语的不定式常省略。再如:-Will you go with me to see the film tonight?
-I'll be glad to. 动词 + off 短语 fly off 飞走;go off 离开;take off 脱下,起飞;run off 跑开;fall off 掉下;turn off 关上;
get off 下来;drive off 驶离;hurry off 匆忙离开;keep off 离开,勿靠近;pay off 还清(债) put off 推迟;send off 驱逐;set off 出发,动身;throw off 扔掉,匆忙脱衣;ring off 挂断电 话;
[应用]完成句子 ①此处很危险,让孩子们离开。
It's dangerous here. the children. ②火车刚到,一大群人正在下车。
The train has just come in, with crowds of people it. Key:①keep ,off ②getting, off 动词 + up go up(物价等)上涨,上升;build(up)one's health 使身体强壮;turn up 出席,到场,开大音量; divide up 分配;分给;set up 建立;come up 走近,发芽;pick up 拾起,用车接,收听(节 目);send up 发射;get up 起床;grow up 长大;look up 仰望,查阅;eat up 吃光;drink up 喝光;use up 用光;stay/sit up 熬夜;give up 放弃;take up 占空间,从事,开始干;keep up 保持,继续;put up 举起,建起;hang up 挂起来;hold up 举起;join up 连接起来;rise up 奋 起反抗;move up 向前移动;lift up 扶起;do up 包,捆;hurry up 赶快;call up 打电话;break up 拆散,破裂;make up 组成,化妆,编造;bring up 抚养大;dress up 打扮;add up 加起来;warm up 变暖,热身。
[应用]完成句子 ①物价在天天上涨。
Prices are day after day. ②衣服常常挂在火炉附近。
The clothes are often near a fire. ③妈妈的把孩子扶起来,领走了。
The mother the baby and took him away. ④他到乡下呆了一段时间,身体好了起来。
He went and stayed in the countryside for a period of time and . Key: ①going, up②hung, up③lifted, up④built, up, his, health drop 用法归纳 drop 可用作名词"滴";用作不及物动词"掉下,滴下";用作及物动词"使掉(滴)下"。如: a drop of blood 一滴血; drop by rop/in drops 一滴一滴地; drop from the tree 从树上掉下来; drop to the ground 落在地上;drop the letter into the mailbox 把信投进信箱;drop a handkerchief/stone 掉下手帕/石头
习语:drop in 顺便拜访;drop in on sb.顺便走访某人;drop in at his school 顺便拜访他的学校。
[应用]完成句子 ①我看见一个苹果从树上掉下来。
I saw an apple the tree. ②他们这样做是搬起石头咂自己的脚。
In doing so they are lifting a rock to on their
feet. ③你路过的话,千万要来。
Do if you happen to be passing.
Key: ①drop,from ②drop, it ③drop, in
due to , be due to be due(to)有"应付给,应到的,预期的"之意,多用作表语,to 不定式符号;而 due to 表示"由 于,起因于"时,to 是介词,相当于 because of。如: The train is due to arrive at
  12.火车应于 12 点到。
When is the ship due?船预定何时到? The accident was due to careless driving 车祸是粗心驾车引起的。
[应用]完成句子 ①那项计划由于资金不足而失败。
The program failed lack of money. ②希尔先生预定明天演讲两次。
Mr Hill lecture twice tomorrow. ②is ,due, to
earn v.赚;得到 ①earn n. ②earn sb. sth ③earn one's living
He earns $10,000 a year.他一年赚 10,000 英镑。
His honesty earned him great respect.他因诚实而博得人们的尊敬。
She earned her living by singing in a nightclub.她靠在夜总会唱歌谋生。
earn, gain, win ,get 四个词均有"得到"之意,但 earn 指经过艰苦努力所得到的报偿,意为"赚得";gain 指作出很大 努力而"获得",所得东西常有一定价值;get 是普通词,指不一定需要努力就能"得到";win 意 为"赢得",含有取胜一方具有优越条件而能克服障碍之意。这四个词有时可通用。
[应用]英译汉 ①earn much money/a prize/one's living ②gain a victory/experience/the first prize/ten dollars/a living/success/the battle/a doctor's degree ③get one's help/full marks Key: ①挣得很多钱/获奖/谋生 ②获胜/取得经验/获得一等奖/赚 10 美元/谋生/获得成功/赢得战斗/获博士学位 ③得到某人的帮助/得满分
earn one's living,make one's living 谋生,挣钱过活。
The professor earns his living by teaching at a language school. eat up 吃光;吃掉。
He was so hungry that he ate up all the cakes and none was left.他太饿了,把所有的蛋糕都吃完 了,一点也没剩。
类似的短语还有:drink up 喝光;喝净。/burn up 烧完;烧掉。/use up 用完;用尽。/clean up 打扫干净。
have effect on 对……有影响,相当于 affect:
It has had such a bad effect on him. effort 短语归纳 make the greatest effort 做最大努力;make great efforts 尽最大努力;make a special effort 作出 特殊努力;make an effort to do sth.努力做某事;make every effort to help you 尽力帮助你;make one last effort 作最后的努力;make no effort 不努力;spare no efforts to do sth.不遗余力去做某 事;with(an)effort 艰难地;without effort 轻而易举地;in an effort 努力。
[应用]完成句子 ①他身体很强壮,可以轻易地提起那个重箱子。
He is strong enough to lift the heavy box . ②我们会不遗余力地阻止他们采取这一步骤。
We will to prevent them from takingthis
step. ③他艰难地游泳,为的是救出那个孩子。
He swam with difficulty save
the boy. ④我不会努力去帮助这样的人。
I'll to help such a person. ②spare, to ,efforts
Key:①without,effout ③in, an, effort, to
④make, no, efforts
make efforts to do sth.努力(尽力)干……
make an effort (at)尽力,努力…… spare no effort 不遗余力
I made every effort to get it (at getting it) end up 结果,结束
He started as an employee and ended up as head of the



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