Unit 2 Fruitful Questions
(获益匪浅的问题 获益匪浅的问题) 获益匪浅的问题 Introductory Remarks When we try to tackle (=handle / deal with) a problem, we may sometimes stick to (= persist in / insist on) the usual way of thinking about it, thus often making it difficult to find a solution (=settlement). We need to remember, therefore, that it is important to learn to look at things in fresh (=new) ways and use unconventional (=not traditional) and creative means (=way / measure / method) in trying to solve (=settle) problems. James Sollisch, author of the present essay (=article), learned about the importance of creative thinking while playing the What Doesn’t Belong game with his children. In the essay, with examples ranging from his own children to some of the world’s greatest scientists, he helps explain the nature of creative thinking and calls on (= demand) the reader to think creatively. Information Related to the Text
  1. Reuben Mattus and Haagen-Dazs The Mattus family has been in the ice cream business through four generations spanning more than 80 years. During this time the family had many product successes but one truly stands out (特出 among the rest: Haagen-Dazs. Before Reuben 特出) 特出
1
Mattus created Haagen-Dazs, ice cream was a frozen commodity sold for 50 cents a gallon. It didn’t take long for Reuben to realize that he couldn’t compete selling cheap ice cream against the big diary corporations (乳制品公司 He 乳制品公司). 乳制品公司 decided to change the game. When Reuben set out (= start / begin) to change the game he applied his own brand of homegrown marketing knowledge / brains, and the end result changed the face of the ice cream industry forever. More importantly, Reuben wanted to change the ice cream. In 1959, the ice cream he was working on for a decade was ready for market. It was made strictly from fresh 蛋黄), 配料/ cream, egg yolks (蛋黄 and other superior ingredients (配料 蛋黄 配料 成分). 成分 He called it Haagen-Dazs. Haagen-Dazs was the first company to come out with an ice cream sold from coast to coast. It became so popular Reuben was afraid he wouldn’t come up with (=reach / satisfy) the demand. In 1990 he decided to create the next ice cream revolution by coming up with the world’s first genuine (= true / real) low-fat ice cream. Reuben’s daughter and son-in-law accepted the challenge of creating a low-fat ice cream product that would satisfy the taste of even the most discrimination ice cream 配方) lovers. For two years, the family tested recipes (配方 until they 配方
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finally hit upon a product so good. Reuben Mattus decide to put his name on it! Reuben Mattus passed away on January 27, 1994 at the age of
  81.
  2. How Edward Jenner discovered vaccination Edward Jenner was born on May 17th, 1749, in the small village of Berkeley in Gloucestershire. From an early age Jenner was a keen observer of nature and after nine years a surgeon’s apprentice he went to St. George’s Hospital, London, to study anatomy (解剖学 and surgery under the prominent 解剖学) 解剖学 surgeon John Hunter. After completing his studies, he returned to Berkeley to set up a medical practice where he stayed until his death in 18
  23. In 1788 an epidemic ( 传 染 病 ) of smallpox ( 天 花 ) hit Gloucestershire and during this outbreak Jenner observed that those of his patients who worked with cattle and had come in contact with much milder disease called cowpox never came down with smallpox. Jenner needed a way of showing that his theory actually worked. Jenner was given the opportunity on the 14th May, 1796, when a young milkmaid called Sarah Nelmes came to see him with sores on her hands like blisters (水泡 Jenner identified 水泡). 水泡 that she had caught cowpox from the cows she handled each
3
day. Jenner now had the opportunity to obtain the material and try out his theories. Jenner believed that if he could inject (注射 注射) 注射 someone with cowpox, the germs from the cowpox would make the body able to defend itself against the dangerous smallpox germs (病菌 which he would inject later. 病菌) 病菌 Jenner approached a local farmer called Phipps and asked him if he could inoculate (注射 his son James against smallpox. 注射) 注射 He explained to the farmer that if his theory was correct, James 感染) would never contract (感染 smallpox. Surprisingly, the farmer 感染 agreed. Jenner made two small cuts on James’ left arm. He then poured the liquid from Sarah’s cowpox sores into the open wounds which he bandaged (用绑带绑 用绑带绑). 用绑带绑 James went down with cowpox but was not very ill. Six weeks later when James had recovered, Jenner vaccinated (接 接 种疫苗) 病毒). 种疫苗 him again, this time with the smallpox virus (病毒 病毒 This was an extremely dangerous experiment. If James lived Jenner would have found a way of preventing smallpox. If James developed smallpox and died he would be murderer. To Jenner’s relief James did not catch smallpox. His experiment had worked. 英国议 Jenner was awarded 30,000 pounds by Parliament (英国议
4
会) to enable him to continue carrying out his tests. Deaths from smallpox fell straight down and vaccination spread through Europe and North America.
Preface
describe (vt.): explain / tell in words description (n.)
Note: be able to do sth; have an ability to do sth be capable of doing sth; have (the) capability of doing sth creative thinking 有创意的思想 想法 有创意的思想/想法 create (v.) creativity (U) creative (adj.) Paragraphs 1 4 fruitful: producing good results; successful
  1. It was a most fruitful meeting; we made a lot of important decisions.
  2. John had a long and fruitful job as a sales manager in the company. take out: remove
  1. I was having problems with my wisdom teeth (智牙 第三磨 智牙;第三磨 智牙 牙) so the dentist took them out.
  2. The mechanic says he’ll have to take out the engine (发动机 发动机) 发动机 in order to look at the gear box (变速箱 变速箱). 变速箱 food fight = fight for food 争抢事物 paradigm: type of something; pattern; mode 范例 样式 模式 范例;样式 样式;模式 shift: (v.&n.): change 转移 变换 班头 转移; 变换;
5

  1. Our factory has three shifts (n.) working system.
  2. The stock market is now shifting (v.) from bull market to bear market. paradigm shift 范式变换 paradigm shift is a major change in 范式变换: the usual way of think about something. limitation (n.) : 限制 e.g.: The price of my stock has risen / gone up (gone down / fallen) to its limitation today. linear (= of or in a line) thinking 线性思维 思考: Linear 线性思维/思考 思考 thinking is often contrasted with (与…对比 lateral thinking (横 对比) 与 对比 横 向 思 维 ). Linear thinking refers to the traditional logical approach (方法 to problem solving. Some people, such as 方法) 方法 Edward de Bono, argue that this approach has its limitations and needs to be supplemented (补充 by lateral thinking, a way 补充) 补充 of solving problem that encourages the use of more unconventional (= not traditional) and creative means focus (vt. & n.) : concentrate (v.) / concentration (n.)
  1. The couple of lovers have focused their earning on / upon money-saving to buy a new apartment.
  2. The focus of the new financial policy is on the control of CPI (=Consuming Price Index). parameter (n.): limiting factor or characteristic; limit (限定的 限定的) 限定的 因素; 特征; 因素 特征 界限
6
refocus parameters: To refocus parameters means to look at certain things that were previously ignored (被无视 被否认的 被无视; 被无视 被否认的) …took out time from their food fight to teach me about paradigm shifts, and limitations of linear thinking and how to refocus parameters (翻译 暂时停止争抢食物 腾出时间教我认识什么是范式变 翻译: 暂时停止争抢食物, 翻译 暂时停止争抢食物 什么是线性思考的局限以及如何重新看待相关的各种因素) 换, 什么是线性思考的局限以及如何重新看待相关的各种因素 Notice: oral 口 头 的 : oral practice / oral translation = interpretation aural 耳听的 aural / listening practice 耳听的:
version: 版本 (个人的 说法 译本 版本; 个人的 说法; 个人的)说法
  1. College English you are learning is a new version.
  2. Her version of the accident was completely different from that given by the driver of the other car.
  3. Congress passed a revised version of the bill (议案 议案). 议案 Sesame Street 芝 麻 街 游 戏 : an American long running children’s television program that combines education with entertainment. One of the games played on the show is the “What Doesn’t Belong” game (哪个不是同一类 哪个不是同一类?) 哪个不是同一类 infant / babychild / kid teenager youth come of age adult / grown-up middle-aged old / aged choose: select fit: be suitable to / for; (here): belong to
e.g.: To buy such a villa doesn’t fit (= be suitable to / for) those low-income young couples
7
Pattern: It takes / took + sb. + 时间 + 不定式 e.g.: It took us three hours to finish our job yesterday. deliver (vt.): hand in; release 递交;发送 递交;
  1. Please deliver your papers when you finish the test.
  2. Don’t forget to deliver (= release) the goods according to the schedule signed on the contract. smug (adj.): self-satisfied 自满的;自鸣得意的 自满的; despite (prep.): in spite of pure (adj.) 纯粹的 Pattern: purist: 纯粹主义者

  1. insist (vt.) + that clause
  2. insist (vi.) on + sth or doing sth = persist in
Pattern: force sb to do sth = compel / oblige sb to to do sth be about to do sth = be going to do sth think up: produce (a new idea, etc.) by thinking hard 想出 e.g.: I really don’t want to go tonight and I’m trying to think up an excuse. Pattern: argue with sb about / on sth = have an argument with sb about / on sth outdo (vt.): do more or better than 做得比(某人 更好 做得比 某人)更好 胜过 某人 更好;胜过

  1. John always outdoes me in the examinations. e.g.: His car is outrunning ours on the express highway. sibling: brother or sister 兄弟姊妹 e.g.: parent: mother or father
8
Paragraphs 5 ? 7
Exercise: It’s the only one (which / that) you put on ice cream. definitely (ad.): undoubtedly; clearly; surely messy (adj.): in a state of disorder; dirty e.g.: Your room is always messy (=in a mess). Copernicus 哥白尼 (1473-15
  43,波兰天文学家) ,波兰天文学家 readjust: adjust again or once more Pattern: adjust … to …: (= adapt … to…): make change to be more suitable
  1. Our government has adjusted the financial policy to strict money control.
  2. Students should adjust themselves to school life after a long holiday. readjusting the centuries-old paradigm of an Earth-centered system 重新调整了地心说这一长达数世纪的范式 Reuben Mattus 鲁宾 . 马修斯 哈根达斯创造者 Bronx 美国纽约市行政区名 Edward Jenner 爱德华 . 詹纳 (1749 ? 1823, 英国医生 牛痘 英国医生), 治天花发明者
vaccinate: protect (sb or sth) against disease by injecting vaccine
smallpox 天花
pox 痘
abandon (vt.): give up; quit 放弃 but: give in = make a concession to / yield 让步
9
quest (n.): search; seek; pursuit
  1. She had come in quest of our good ideas.
  2. Many people traveled to the distant mountainous area in quest of gold.
  3. Nothing will stop us in our quest for the truth. (in one’s quest for sth) cure (v&n): treat / treatment expose (vt.) … to …: Don’t expose (=open) the secret to those people. e.g.: They were exposed to sunlight on the beach yesterday. …people who were exposed to it (=smallpox)那些接触天花的人 那些接触天花的人 contract (vt.):be inflected with; catch or become ill with (a disease) 感染 e.g.: Mary contracted (=was inflected with) a serious flu while she was traveling. mild (adj.): not severe; slight e.g.: He has suffered a mild heart disease nothing too serious. cow pox 牛痘 deadly (= fatal) smallpox 致命的天花
Paragraphs 8 ? 10
define (vt.)下定义 下定义 definition (n.) redefine = define again
e.g.: How to define “the best”? = How to give the definition of “the best”? e.g.: We should redefine the trend of the present stock market.
10
reframe (vt.) 重新拟定;重新表达 重新拟定; They were reframing the questions: They were posing (= put forward) the questions in different ways. (For example, instead of asking “What can cure smallpox”, Edward Jenner posed the question “What can prevent smallpox”.) in short: briefly; in a few words 总之;简言之 总之; e.g.: He is disorganized, he is inefficient, he is never there when you want him in short, the man is hopeless. according to: based on / upon The Structure of Scientific Revolution 科学革命的结构
shifting (=changing) old paradigm (=modes /types) 改变旧的范式
workbook exercise 作业本里的练习
circle (vt.): make a round of 圈 mark: make a sign of 作标记 批分数 作标记/批分数
frame the question differently: explain or express the question in different way maybe: perhaps brilliant (= outstanding / very clever) scientists 杰
 

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