Unit 2 Fruitful Questions
(获益匪浅的问题 获益匪浅的问题) 获益匪浅的问题 Introductory Remarks When we try to tackle (=handle / deal with) a problem, we may sometimes stick to (= persist in / insist on) the usual way of thinking about it, thus often making it difficult to find a solution (=settlement). We need to remember, therefore, that it is important to learn to look at things in fresh (=new) ways and use unconventional (=not traditional) and creative means (=way / measure / method) in trying to solve (=settle) problems. James Sollisch, author of the present essay (=article), learned about the importance of creative thinking while playing the What Doesn’t Belong game with his children. In the essay, with examples ranging from his own children to some of the world’s greatest scientists, he helps explain the nature of creative thinking and calls on (= demand) the reader to think creatively. Information Related to the Text
  1. Reuben Mattus and Haagen-Dazs The Mattus family has been in the ice cream business through four generations spanning more than 80 years. During this time the family had many product successes but one truly stands out (特出 among the rest: Haagen-Dazs. Before Reuben 特出) 特出
Mattus created Haagen-Dazs, ice cream was a frozen commodity sold for 50 cents a gallon. It didn’t take long for Reuben to realize that he couldn’t compete selling cheap ice cream against the big diary corporations (乳制品公司 He 乳制品公司). 乳制品公司 decided to change the game. When Reuben set out (= start / begin) to change the game he applied his own brand of homegrown marketing knowledge / brains, and the end result changed the face of the ice cream industry forever. More importantly, Reuben wanted to change the ice cream. In 1959, the ice cream he was working on for a decade was ready for market. It was made strictly from fresh 蛋黄), 配料/ cream, egg yolks (蛋黄 and other superior ingredients (配料 蛋黄 配料 成分). 成分 He called it Haagen-Dazs. Haagen-Dazs was the first company to come out with an ice cream sold from coast to coast. It became so popular Reuben was afraid he wouldn’t come up with (=reach / satisfy) the demand. In 1990 he decided to create the next ice cream revolution by coming up with the world’s first genuine (= true / real) low-fat ice cream. Reuben’s daughter and son-in-law accepted the challenge of creating a low-fat ice cream product that would satisfy the taste of even the most discrimination ice cream 配方) lovers. For two years, the family tested recipes (配方 until they 配方
finally hit upon a product so good. Reuben Mattus decide to put his name on it! Reuben Mattus passed away on January 27, 1994 at the age of
  2. How Edward Jenner discovered vaccination Edward Jenner was born on May 17th, 1749, in the small village of Berkeley in Gloucestershire. From an early age Jenner was a keen observer of nature and after nine years a surgeon’s apprentice he went to St. George’s Hospital, London, to study anatomy (解剖学 and surgery under the prominent 解剖学) 解剖学 surgeon John Hunter. After completing his studies, he returned to Berkeley to set up a medical practice where he stayed until his death in 18
  23. In 1788 an epidemic ( 传 染 病 ) of smallpox ( 天 花 ) hit Gloucestershire and during this outbreak Jenner observed that those of his patients who worked with cattle and had come in contact with much milder disease called cowpox never came down with smallpox. Jenner needed a way of showing that his theory actually worked. Jenner was given the opportunity on the 14th May, 1796, when a young milkmaid called Sarah Nelmes came to see him with sores on her hands like blisters (水泡 Jenner identified 水泡). 水泡 that she had caught cowpox from the cows she handled each
day. Jenner now had the opportunity to obtain the material and try out his theories. Jenner believed that if he could inject (注射 注射) 注射 someone with cowpox, the germs from the cowpox would make the body able to defend itself against the dangerous smallpox germs (病菌 which he would inject later. 病菌) 病菌 Jenner approached a local farmer called Phipps and asked him if he could inoculate (注射 his son James against smallpox. 注射) 注射 He explained to the farmer that if his theory was correct, James 感染) would never contract (感染 smallpox. Surprisingly, the farmer 感染 agreed. Jenner made two small cuts on James’ left arm. He then poured the liquid from Sarah’s cowpox sores into the open wounds which he bandaged (用绑带绑 用绑带绑). 用绑带绑 James went down with cowpox but was not very ill. Six weeks later when James had recovered, Jenner vaccinated (接 接 种疫苗) 病毒). 种疫苗 him again, this time with the smallpox virus (病毒 病毒 This was an extremely dangerous experiment. If James lived Jenner would have found a way of preventing smallpox. If James developed smallpox and died he would be murderer. To Jenner’s relief James did not catch smallpox. His experiment had worked. 英国议 Jenner was awarded 30,000 pounds by Parliament (英国议
会) to enable him to continue carrying out his tests. Deaths from smallpox fell straight down and vaccination spread through Europe and North America.
describe (vt.): explain / tell in words description (n.)
Note: be able to do sth; have an ability to do sth be capable of doing sth; have (the) capability of doing sth creative thinking 有创意的思想 想法 有创意的思想/想法 create (v.) creativity (U) creative (adj.) Paragraphs 1 4 fruitful: producing good results; successful
  1. It was a most fruitful meeting; we made a lot of important decisions.
  2. John had a long and fruitful job as a sales manager in the company. take out: remove
  1. I was having problems with my wisdom teeth (智牙 第三磨 智牙;第三磨 智牙 牙) so the dentist took them out.
  2. The mechanic says he’ll have to take out the engine (发动机 发动机) 发动机 in order to look at the gear box (变速箱 变速箱). 变速箱 food fight = fight for food 争抢事物 paradigm: type of something; pattern; mode 范例 样式 模式 范例;样式 样式;模式 shift: (v.&n.): change 转移 变换 班头 转移; 变换;

  1. Our factory has three shifts (n.) working system.
  2. The stock market is now shifting (v.) from bull market to bear market. paradigm shift 范式变换 paradigm shift is a major change in 范式变换: the usual way of think about something. limitation (n.) : 限制 e.g.: The price of my stock has risen / gone up (gone down / fallen) to its limitation today. linear (= of or in a line) thinking 线性思维 思考: Linear 线性思维/思考 思考 thinking is often contrasted with (与…对比 lateral thinking (横 对比) 与 对比 横 向 思 维 ). Linear thinking refers to the traditional logical approach (方法 to problem solving. Some people, such as 方法) 方法 Edward de Bono, argue that this approach has its limitations and needs to be supplemented (补充 by lateral thinking, a way 补充) 补充 of solving problem that encourages the use of more unconventional (= not traditional) and creative means focus (vt. & n.) : concentrate (v.) / concentration (n.)
  1. The couple of lovers have focused their earning on / upon money-saving to buy a new apartment.
  2. The focus of the new financial policy is on the control of CPI (=Consuming Price Index). parameter (n.): limiting factor or characteristic; limit (限定的 限定的) 限定的 因素; 特征; 因素 特征 界限
refocus parameters: To refocus parameters means to look at certain things that were previously ignored (被无视 被否认的 被无视; 被无视 被否认的) …took out time from their food fight to teach me about paradigm shifts, and limitations of linear thinking and how to refocus parameters (翻译 暂时停止争抢食物 腾出时间教我认识什么是范式变 翻译: 暂时停止争抢食物, 翻译 暂时停止争抢食物 什么是线性思考的局限以及如何重新看待相关的各种因素) 换, 什么是线性思考的局限以及如何重新看待相关的各种因素 Notice: oral 口 头 的 : oral practice / oral translation = interpretation aural 耳听的 aural / listening practice 耳听的:
version: 版本 (个人的 说法 译本 版本; 个人的 说法; 个人的)说法
  1. College English you are learning is a new version.
  2. Her version of the accident was completely different from that given by the driver of the other car.
  3. Congress passed a revised version of the bill (议案 议案). 议案 Sesame Street 芝 麻 街 游 戏 : an American long running children’s television program that combines education with entertainment. One of the games played on the show is the “What Doesn’t Belong” game (哪个不是同一类 哪个不是同一类?) 哪个不是同一类 infant / babychild / kid teenager youth come of age adult / grown-up middle-aged old / aged choose: select fit: be suitable to / for; (here): belong to
e.g.: To buy such a villa doesn’t fit (= be suitable to / for) those low-income young couples
Pattern: It takes / took + sb. + 时间 + 不定式 e.g.: It took us three hours to finish our job yesterday. deliver (vt.): hand in; release 递交;发送 递交;
  1. Please deliver your papers when you finish the test.
  2. Don’t forget to deliver (= release) the goods according to the schedule signed on the contract. smug (adj.): self-satisfied 自满的;自鸣得意的 自满的; despite (prep.): in spite of pure (adj.) 纯粹的 Pattern: purist: 纯粹主义者

  1. insist (vt.) + that clause
  2. insist (vi.) on + sth or doing sth = persist in
Pattern: force sb to do sth = compel / oblige sb to to do sth be about to do sth = be going to do sth think up: produce (a new idea, etc.) by thinking hard 想出 e.g.: I really don’t want to go tonight and I’m trying to think up an excuse. Pattern: argue with sb about / on sth = have an argument with sb about / on sth outdo (vt.): do more or better than 做得比(某人 更好 做得比 某人)更好 胜过 某人 更好;胜过

  1. John always outdoes me in the examinations. e.g.: His car is outrunning ours on the express highway. sibling: brother or sister 兄弟姊妹 e.g.: parent: mother or father
Paragraphs 5 ? 7
Exercise: It’s the only one (which / that) you put on ice cream. definitely (ad.): undoubtedly; clearly; surely messy (adj.): in a state of disorder; dirty e.g.: Your room is always messy (=in a mess). Copernicus 哥白尼 (1473-15
  43,波兰天文学家) ,波兰天文学家 readjust: adjust again or once more Pattern: adjust … to …: (= adapt … to…): make change to be more suitable
  1. Our government has adjusted the financial policy to strict money control.
  2. Students should adjust themselves to school life after a long holiday. readjusting the centuries-old paradigm of an Earth-centered system 重新调整了地心说这一长达数世纪的范式 Reuben Mattus 鲁宾 . 马修斯 哈根达斯创造者 Bronx 美国纽约市行政区名 Edward Jenner 爱德华 . 詹纳 (1749 ? 1823, 英国医生 牛痘 英国医生), 治天花发明者
vaccinate: protect (sb or sth) against disease by injecting vaccine
smallpox 天花
pox 痘
abandon (vt.): give up; quit 放弃 but: give in = make a concession to / yield 让步
quest (n.): search; seek; pursuit
  1. She had come in quest of our good ideas.
  2. Many people traveled to the distant mountainous area in quest of gold.
  3. Nothing will stop us in our quest for the truth. (in one’s quest for sth) cure (v&n): treat / treatment expose (vt.) … to …: Don’t expose (=open) the secret to those people. e.g.: They were exposed to sunlight on the beach yesterday. …people who were exposed to it (=smallpox)那些接触天花的人 那些接触天花的人 contract (vt.):be inflected with; catch or become ill with (a disease) 感染 e.g.: Mary contracted (=was inflected with) a serious flu while she was traveling. mild (adj.): not severe; slight e.g.: He has suffered a mild heart disease nothing too serious. cow pox 牛痘 deadly (= fatal) smallpox 致命的天花
Paragraphs 8 ? 10
define (vt.)下定义 下定义 definition (n.) redefine = define again
e.g.: How to define “the best”? = How to give the definition of “the best”? e.g.: We should redefine the trend of the present stock market.
reframe (vt.) 重新拟定;重新表达 重新拟定; They were reframing the questions: They were posing (= put forward) the questions in different ways. (For example, instead of asking “What can cure smallpox”, Edward Jenner posed the question “What can prevent smallpox”.) in short: briefly; in a few words 总之;简言之 总之; e.g.: He is disorganized, he is inefficient, he is never there when you want him in short, the man is hopeless. according to: based on / upon The Structure of Scientific Revolution 科学革命的结构
shifting (=changing) old paradigm (=modes /types) 改变旧的范式
workbook exercise 作业本里的练习
circle (vt.): make a round of 圈 mark: make a sign of 作标记 批分数 作标记/批分数
frame the question differently: explain or express the question in different way maybe: perhaps brilliant (= outstanding / very clever) scientists 杰


College English (3-2) (交大大学英语课件(2)

   Unit 2 Fruitful Questions (获益匪浅的问题 获益匪浅的问题) 获益匪浅的问题 Introductory Remarks When we try to tackle (=handle / deal with) a problem, we may sometimes stick to (= persist in / insist on) the usual way of thinking about it, thus often making it difficult ...

College English (3-3)[1交大大学英语课件(3)

   Unit 3 Introductory remarks Why I Teach Teaching has been considered an undesirable profession in many parts of the world. Education may be respected and highly valued, but teachers are not. Their pay and prestige are low in most countries. They wo ...


   2006 National English Contest for College Students Level A - Final Part I Listening Comprehension (25 minutes, 30 points) Section A Short Conversations (6 points) Directions: In this section, you will hear 6 short conversations. At the end of each ...

如何学好英语。How to learn English well

   注:此文翻译是直接用有道进行翻译的,如有不妥处,请谅解。有心的 此文翻译是直接用有道进行翻译的,如有不妥处,请谅解。 朋友亦可重新译过再发共享。此文在网上摘录。 朋友亦可重新译过再发共享。此文在网上摘录。 How To Learn English!如何学好英语! Here are some tips which may help you to master the English Language!这 里有一些技巧可以帮助你掌握英语。 Speak without Fear 说话而无所畏惧 T ...

英语同义词大全---A A complete collection of English synonyms----A

   英语同义词大全A 英语同义词大全 A complete collection of English synonymsA abandon, desert, forsake, leave, give up 这些动词或词组均含“抛弃、放弃 抛弃、 抛弃 放弃”之意 abandon〓强调永远或完全放弃或抛弃人或事物等,这可能是被迫的,也可能是自愿的。 desert〓着重指违背法律责任和义务,或自己的信仰与誓言的行为,多含非难的意味。 forsake〓侧重断绝感情上的依恋,自愿抛弃所喜欢的人或物。也指 ...

【英语】海南2011高考一轮复习课件:Module 4 Which English(外研版选修8)

   Module 4 Ⅰ.高频单词思忆 Ⅰ.高频单词思忆 Which English? 基础落实 很重要, 1.In sports what really counts (很重要,很有 价值) 价值)is not the winning but the playing. 抱怨) 2.The tourist complained (抱怨)that the room was too dirty. 3.The poor girl was dismissed instantly (立即,马上)by he ...

I love English--英语演讲稿

   中学生英语演讲稿 悬赏分:25 - 提问时间2009-9-12 16:39 关于目标的重要性、为什么要养成目标?这类的内容。中学生(初三)水平,三分钟左右。 提问者: gaoyichen123 I love English--英语演讲稿 As everyone knows,English is very important today.It has been used everywhere in the world.It has become the most common language ...


   疯狂英语 365 句 最牛英语口语培训模式:躺在家里练口语,全程外教一对一,三个月畅谈无阻! 最牛英语口语培训模式:躺在家里练口语,全程外教一对一,三个月畅谈无阻! 太平洋英语,免费体验全部外教一对一课程 体验全部外教一对一课程: 太平洋英语,免费体验全部外教一对一课程:http://www.pacificenglish.cn 疯狂英语 365 句 1.Absolutely. 小心不出大错。 12.Can I have a day off? 我能请一天假吗? 13.Can I help? 2 ...

English 900 句学会英语

   English 900 英语九百句(美音版) English 900 英语九百句(美音版) 第一册 一、 Greetings 问候语 1. Hello! / Hi! 你好! 2. Good morning / afternoon / evening! 早晨(下午/晚上)好! 3. I'm Kathy King. 我是凯西?金。 4. Are you Peter Smith? 你是彼得?史密斯吗? 5. Yes, I am. / No, I'm not. 是,我是。/ 不,我不是。 6. Ho ...


     English 900 英语九百句 (美音版) 第一册 一、 Greetings 问候语 1. Hello! / Hi! 你好! 2. Good morning / afternoon / evening! 早晨(下午/晚上)好! 3. I'm Kathy King. 我是凯西?金。 4. Are you Peter Smith? ...



   通册备课 一、教学内容 教学内容: BOOK 3 教学内容 本册书共六单元,课本内容共分六部分: Unite 1 My Classroom Unite 2 My Schoolbag Unite 3 My Friends Unite 4 My Home Unite 5 What Would You Like? Unite 6 Meet My Family! 二、教材分析 教材分析 为确保良好的教学效果,在教学新内容时要强调听准,辩清,观察,模 仿,练习运用。即: 听音??仔细静听; 辩音??辨 ...


   非常抱歉,该文档存在转换错误,不能在本机显示。建议您重新选择其它文档 ...


   1.脑子里想好中文的意思,再把它翻译成英文,这样的思路对吗? 脑子里想好中文的意思,再把它翻译成英文,这样的思路对吗 脑子里想好中文的意思 汪老师:很多同学都是想好中文再翻译成英文。严格说来,即使对学习英语多年的人来 说, 在写作时想做到完全用英文思考都是极难达到的一种近乎神话的理想境界。 关键是中文 思考的程度??英文修养极高的人在写作时可能已经很少意识到自己是在用那种语言、 很难 区分自己在什么时候正在使用什么语言,他已经到了“天人合一”的境界;英文很好的人可能 只是在整体构思时用汉语, ...


   Review of Units 1-5(1-5 单元复习) - ( - 单元复习) 归纳总结 一. 语法 1. 动名词的用法: 动名词的用法: (1)动名词兼有动词和名词的特征,由动词加 ing 构成。 (2)用法 A. 作主语 She said that memorizing the words of pop songs also helped a lot. B. 作宾语 Now, I am enjoying learning English. Thanks for sending me ...


   时尚英语族,看看你属于哪一族? 时尚英语族,看看你属于哪一族? 对号入座:看看你属于哪一族? 啃老族 the NEET group “啃老族”又称“尼特族”,“尼特族”是 NEET 的音译,全称是(Not currently engaged in Employment, Education or Training),最早在英国使用,之后渐渐流传到其它国 家; 它是指一些不升学、 不就业、 不进修或参加就业辅导, 终日无所事事的族群。 在英国,尼特族指的是 16 至 34 岁的年轻人;在日本, ...