Unit 2 Fruitful Questions
(获益匪浅的问题 获益匪浅的问题) 获益匪浅的问题 Introductory Remarks When we try to tackle (=handle / deal with) a problem, we may sometimes stick to (= persist in / insist on) the usual way of thinking about it, thus often making it difficult to find a solution (=settlement). We need to remember, therefore, that it is important to learn to look at things in fresh (=new) ways and use unconventional (=not traditional) and creative means (=way / measure / method) in trying to solve (=settle) problems. James Sollisch, author of the present essay (=article), learned about the importance of creative thinking while playing the What Doesn’t Belong game with his children. In the essay, with examples ranging from his own children to some of the world’s greatest scientists, he helps explain the nature of creative thinking and calls on (= demand) the reader to think creatively. Information Related to the Text
  1. Reuben Mattus and Haagen-Dazs The Mattus family has been in the ice cream business through four generations spanning more than 80 years. During this time the family had many product successes but one truly stands out (特出 among the rest: Haagen-Dazs. Before Reuben 特出) 特出
Mattus created Haagen-Dazs, ice cream was a frozen commodity sold for 50 cents a gallon. It didn’t take long for Reuben to realize that he couldn’t compete selling cheap ice cream against the big diary corporations (乳制品公司 He 乳制品公司). 乳制品公司 decided to change the game. When Reuben set out (= start / begin) to change the game he applied his own brand of homegrown marketing knowledge / brains, and the end result changed the face of the ice cream industry forever. More importantly, Reuben wanted to change the ice cream. In 1959, the ice cream he was working on for a decade was ready for market. It was made strictly from fresh 蛋黄), 配料/ cream, egg yolks (蛋黄 and other superior ingredients (配料 蛋黄 配料 成分). 成分 He called it Haagen-Dazs. Haagen-Dazs was the first company to come out with an ice cream sold from coast to coast. It became so popular Reuben was afraid he wouldn’t come up with (=reach / satisfy) the demand. In 1990 he decided to create the next ice cream revolution by coming up with the world’s first genuine (= true / real) low-fat ice cream. Reuben’s daughter and son-in-law accepted the challenge of creating a low-fat ice cream product that would satisfy the taste of even the most discrimination ice cream 配方) lovers. For two years, the family tested recipes (配方 until they 配方
finally hit upon a product so good. Reuben Mattus decide to put his name on it! Reuben Mattus passed away on January 27, 1994 at the age of
  2. How Edward Jenner discovered vaccination Edward Jenner was born on May 17th, 1749, in the small village of Berkeley in Gloucestershire. From an early age Jenner was a keen observer of nature and after nine years a surgeon’s apprentice he went to St. George’s Hospital, London, to study anatomy (解剖学 and surgery under the prominent 解剖学) 解剖学 surgeon John Hunter. After completing his studies, he returned to Berkeley to set up a medical practice where he stayed until his death in 18
  23. In 1788 an epidemic ( 传 染 病 ) of smallpox ( 天 花 ) hit Gloucestershire and during this outbreak Jenner observed that those of his patients who worked with cattle and had come in contact with much milder disease called cowpox never came down with smallpox. Jenner needed a way of showing that his theory actually worked. Jenner was given the opportunity on the 14th May, 1796, when a young milkmaid called Sarah Nelmes came to see him with sores on her hands like blisters (水泡 Jenner identified 水泡). 水泡 that she had caught cowpox from the cows she handled each
day. Jenner now had the opportunity to obtain the material and try out his theories. Jenner believed that if he could inject (注射 注射) 注射 someone with cowpox, the germs from the cowpox would make the body able to defend itself against the dangerous smallpox germs (病菌 which he would inject later. 病菌) 病菌 Jenner approached a local farmer called Phipps and asked him if he could inoculate (注射 his son James against smallpox. 注射) 注射 He explained to the farmer that if his theory was correct, James 感染) would never contract (感染 smallpox. Surprisingly, the farmer 感染 agreed. Jenner made two small cuts on James’ left arm. He then poured the liquid from Sarah’s cowpox sores into the open wounds which he bandaged (用绑带绑 用绑带绑). 用绑带绑 James went down with cowpox but was not very ill. Six weeks later when James had recovered, Jenner vaccinated (接 接 种疫苗) 病毒). 种疫苗 him again, this time with the smallpox virus (病毒 病毒 This was an extremely dangerous experiment. If James lived Jenner would have found a way of preventing smallpox. If James developed smallpox and died he would be murderer. To Jenner’s relief James did not catch smallpox. His experiment had worked. 英国议 Jenner was awarded 30,000 pounds by Parliament (英国议
会) to enable him to continue carrying out his tests. Deaths from smallpox fell straight down and vaccination spread through Europe and North America.
describe (vt.): explain / tell in words description (n.)
Note: be able to do sth; have an ability to do sth be capable of doing sth; have (the) capability of doing sth creative thinking 有创意的思想 想法 有创意的思想/想法 create (v.) creativity (U) creative (adj.) Paragraphs 1 4 fruitful: producing good results; successful
  1. It was a most fruitful meeting; we made a lot of important decisions.
  2. John had a long and fruitful job as a sales manager in the company. take out: remove
  1. I was having problems with my wisdom teeth (智牙 第三磨 智牙;第三磨 智牙 牙) so the dentist took them out.
  2. The mechanic says he’ll have to take out the engine (发动机 发动机) 发动机 in order to look at the gear box (变速箱 变速箱). 变速箱 food fight = fight for food 争抢事物 paradigm: type of something; pattern; mode 范例 样式 模式 范例;样式 样式;模式 shift: (v.&n.): change 转移 变换 班头 转移; 变换;

  1. Our factory has three shifts (n.) working system.
  2. The stock market is now shifting (v.) from bull market to bear market. paradigm shift 范式变换 paradigm shift is a major change in 范式变换: the usual way of think about something. limitation (n.) : 限制 e.g.: The price of my stock has risen / gone up (gone down / fallen) to its limitation today. linear (= of or in a line) thinking 线性思维 思考: Linear 线性思维/思考 思考 thinking is often contrasted with (与…对比 lateral thinking (横 对比) 与 对比 横 向 思 维 ). Linear thinking refers to the traditional logical approach (方法 to problem solving. Some people, such as 方法) 方法 Edward de Bono, argue that this approach has its limitations and needs to be supplemented (补充 by lateral thinking, a way 补充) 补充 of solving problem that encourages the use of more unconventional (= not traditional) and creative means focus (vt. & n.) : concentrate (v.) / concentration (n.)
  1. The couple of lovers have focused their earning on / upon money-saving to buy a new apartment.
  2. The focus of the new financial policy is on the control of CPI (=Consuming Price Index). parameter (n.): limiting factor or characteristic; limit (限定的 限定的) 限定的 因素; 特征; 因素 特征 界限
refocus parameters: To refocus parameters means to look at certain things that were previously ignored (被无视 被否认的 被无视; 被无视 被否认的) …took out time from their food fight to teach me about paradigm shifts, and limitations of linear thinking and how to refocus parameters (翻译 暂时停止争抢食物 腾出时间教我认识什么是范式变 翻译: 暂时停止争抢食物, 翻译 暂时停止争抢食物 什么是线性思考的局限以及如何重新看待相关的各种因素) 换, 什么是线性思考的局限以及如何重新看待相关的各种因素 Notice: oral 口 头 的 : oral practice / oral translation = interpretation aural 耳听的 aural / listening practice 耳听的:
version: 版本 (个人的 说法 译本 版本; 个人的 说法; 个人的)说法
  1. College English you are learning is a new version.
  2. Her version of the accident was completely different from that given by the driver of the other car.
  3. Congress passed a revised version of the bill (议案 议案). 议案 Sesame Street 芝 麻 街 游 戏 : an American long running children’s television program that combines education with entertainment. One of the games played on the show is the “What Doesn’t Belong” game (哪个不是同一类 哪个不是同一类?) 哪个不是同一类 infant / babychild / kid teenager youth come of age adult / grown-up middle-aged old / aged choose: select fit: be suitable to / for; (here): belong to
e.g.: To buy such a villa doesn’t fit (= be suitable to / for) those low-income young couples
Pattern: It takes / took + sb. + 时间 + 不定式 e.g.: It took us three hours to finish our job yesterday. deliver (vt.): hand in; release 递交;发送 递交;
  1. Please deliver your papers when you finish the test.
  2. Don’t forget to deliver (= release) the goods according to the schedule signed on the contract. smug (adj.): self-satisfied 自满的;自鸣得意的 自满的; despite (prep.): in spite of pure (adj.) 纯粹的 Pattern: purist: 纯粹主义者

  1. insist (vt.) + that clause
  2. insist (vi.) on + sth or doing sth = persist in
Pattern: force sb to do sth = compel / oblige sb to to do sth be about to do sth = be going to do sth think up: produce (a new idea, etc.) by thinking hard 想出 e.g.: I really don’t want to go tonight and I’m trying to think up an excuse. Pattern: argue with sb about / on sth = have an argument with sb about / on sth outdo (vt.): do more or better than 做得比(某人 更好 做得比 某人)更好 胜过 某人 更好;胜过

  1. John always outdoes me in the examinations. e.g.: His car is outrunning ours on the express highway. sibling: brother or sister 兄弟姊妹 e.g.: parent: mother or father
Paragraphs 5 ? 7
Exercise: It’s the only one (which / that) you put on ice cream. definitely (ad.): undoubtedly; clearly; surely messy (adj.): in a state of disorder; dirty e.g.: Your room is always messy (=in a mess). Copernicus 哥白尼 (1473-15
  43,波兰天文学家) ,波兰天文学家 readjust: adjust again or once more Pattern: adjust … to …: (= adapt … to…): make change to be more suitable
  1. Our government has adjusted the financial policy to strict money control.
  2. Students should adjust themselves to school life after a long holiday. readjusting the centuries-old paradigm of an Earth-centered system 重新调整了地心说这一长达数世纪的范式 Reuben Mattus 鲁宾 . 马修斯 哈根达斯创造者 Bronx 美国纽约市行政区名 Edward Jenner 爱德华 . 詹纳 (1749 ? 1823, 英国医生 牛痘 英国医生), 治天花发明者
vaccinate: protect (sb or sth) against disease by injecting vaccine
smallpox 天花
pox 痘
abandon (vt.): give up; quit 放弃 but: give in = make a concession to / yield 让步
quest (n.): search; seek; pursuit
  1. She had come in quest of our good ideas.
  2. Many people traveled to the distant mountainous area in quest of gold.
  3. Nothing will stop us in our quest for the truth. (in one’s quest for sth) cure (v&n): treat / treatment expose (vt.) … to …: Don’t expose (=open) the secret to those people. e.g.: They were exposed to sunlight on the beach yesterday. …people who were exposed to it (=smallpox)那些接触天花的人 那些接触天花的人 contract (vt.):be inflected with; catch or become ill with (a disease) 感染 e.g.: Mary contracted (=was inflected with) a serious flu while she was traveling. mild (adj.): not severe; slight e.g.: He has suffered a mild heart disease nothing too serious. cow pox 牛痘 deadly (= fatal) smallpox 致命的天花
Paragraphs 8 ? 10
define (vt.)下定义 下定义 definition (n.) redefine = define again
e.g.: How to define “the best”? = How to give the definition of “the best”? e.g.: We should redefine the trend of the present stock market.
reframe (vt.) 重新拟定;重新表达 重新拟定; They were reframing the questions: They were posing (= put forward) the questions in different ways. (For example, instead of asking “What can cure smallpox”, Edward Jenner posed the question “What can prevent smallpox”.) in short: briefly; in a few words 总之;简言之 总之; e.g.: He is disorganized, he is inefficient, he is never there when you want him in short, the man is hopeless. according to: based on / upon The Structure of Scientific Revolution 科学革命的结构
shifting (=changing) old paradigm (=modes /types) 改变旧的范式
workbook exercise 作业本里的练习
circle (vt.): make a round of 圈 mark: make a sign of 作标记 批分数 作标记/批分数
frame the question differently: explain or express the question in different way maybe: perhaps brilliant (= outstanding / very clever) scientists 杰


College English (3-2) (交大大学英语课件(2)

   Unit 2 Fruitful Questions (获益匪浅的问题 获益匪浅的问题) 获益匪浅的问题 Introductory Remarks When we try to tackle (=handle / deal with) a problem, we may sometimes stick to (= persist in / insist on) the usual way of thinking about it, thus often making it difficult ...

College English (3-1)[1].(交大大学英语课件(一))

   Unit One: A Brush with the Law The brief of the story The story happened about ten years ago. The two policemen arrested me because I wore long hair, wandered in the street, and was unemployed. They suspected that I stole the milk bottles. And I wa ...


   2006 National English Contest for College Students Level A - Final Part I Listening Comprehension (25 minutes, 30 points) Section A Short Conversations (6 points) Directions: In this section, you will hear 6 short conversations. At the end of each ...

如何学好英语。How to learn English well

   注:此文翻译是直接用有道进行翻译的,如有不妥处,请谅解。有心的 此文翻译是直接用有道进行翻译的,如有不妥处,请谅解。 朋友亦可重新译过再发共享。此文在网上摘录。 朋友亦可重新译过再发共享。此文在网上摘录。 How To Learn English!如何学好英语! Here are some tips which may help you to master the English Language!这 里有一些技巧可以帮助你掌握英语。 Speak without Fear 说话而无所畏惧 T ...

Politics and the English Language政治与英语

   In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defense of the indefensible. Things like the continuance of British rule in India, the Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but ...

英语同义词大全---A A complete collection of English synonyms----A

   英语同义词大全A 英语同义词大全 A complete collection of English synonymsA abandon, desert, forsake, leave, give up 这些动词或词组均含“抛弃、放弃 抛弃、 抛弃 放弃”之意 abandon〓强调永远或完全放弃或抛弃人或事物等,这可能是被迫的,也可能是自愿的。 desert〓着重指违背法律责任和义务,或自己的信仰与誓言的行为,多含非难的意味。 forsake〓侧重断绝感情上的依恋,自愿抛弃所喜欢的人或物。也指 ...

【英语】海南2011高考一轮复习课件:Module 4 Which English(外研版选修8)

   Module 4 Ⅰ.高频单词思忆 Ⅰ.高频单词思忆 Which English? 基础落实 很重要, 1.In sports what really counts (很重要,很有 价值) 价值)is not the winning but the playing. 抱怨) 2.The tourist complained (抱怨)that the room was too dirty. 3.The poor girl was dismissed instantly (立即,马上)by he ...

【英语】海南2011高考一轮复习课件:Module 4 Which English(外研版选修8)

   Module 4 Ⅰ.高频单词思忆 Ⅰ.高频单词思忆 Which English? 基础落实 很重要, 1.In sports what really counts (很重要,很有 价值) 价值)is not the winning but the playing. 抱怨) 2.The tourist complained (抱怨)that the room was too dirty. 3.The poor girl was dismissed instantly (立即,马上)by he ...

《牛津小学英语》5B The English Club

   异 构  课  同 … G   一 u  T : m   ppy,oo I’ ha t .N o ,et s w l ’  hav     r e t k. e a f e   al   S: K . 0   T: I I’n  fom   Chi   I’n  r na. I C hi nes e. I i  i  lve n H ai en.H O m W  eo our   l ? T : y f our t   c our i  M   av ie o]   s yuh p y  o ...

English 900 英语九百句

   首页 最新英语听力及口语资料 English 900 英语九百句 (美音版) 第一册 一、 Greetings 问候语 1. Hello! / Hi! 你好! 2. Good morning / afternoon / evening! 早晨(下午/晚上)好! 3. I'm Kathy King. 我是凯西金。 4. Are you Peter Smith? 你是彼得史密斯吗? 5. Yes, I am. / No, I'm not. 是,我是。/ 不,我不是。 6. How are you ...



   大学英语四级精华资料大全,史上最全最有效~ 2010 年 12 月大学英语四级考试 70 天备考方案-回帖报道送勋章 版主建议:如何准备 2010 年 12 月大学英语四级考试及考试时间安排 2010 年 11 月四六级口语考试规则及备考全攻略(资料下载) 历年大学英语四级真题试卷word+答案+听力原文+MP3(1989-2010.6)下载 [在线题库]2008.6-2009.12 大学英语四级真题测试及专题训练(含听力及答案) 2010 年 11 月新发电子书: 【大家网首发】2010 ...


   外语下载在线 http://down.tingroom.com 高三下学期开学测试 英语 第一卷(三部分,共 115 分) 第一部分 听力(共两节,满分 30 分) 第一节:(共 5 小 题;每小题 1.5 分,共 7.5 分) 听下面 5 段对话。每段对话后有一道小题,从每小题所给的 A、B、C 三个选项中选出最 佳选项。听完每段对话后,你将有 10 秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下面一小题。每段对 话只读一遍。 1When does the man’s plane take off? A ...


   动词的时态和语态 高考一直侧重对动词各种用法的考查,其中又以考查动 高考一直侧重对动词各种用法的考查, 词的时态和语态为重中之重。 词的时态和语态为重中之重。考生要通过特定的语境进行判 选择使用正确的时态和语态。 断,选择使用正确的时态和语态。考生在日常学习中要理解 和区别各种时态和语态, 和区别各种时态和语态,注重将动词放在具体的语言环境中 学习和运用。 学习和运用。 一、动词的时态 1.一般现在时 一般现在时 (1) 表示习惯性或反复发生的动作。 表示习惯性或反复发生的动作。 He wr ...


   神奇九步让你的英语变流利 * 把自己融入 语言这个东西,速成很难,除非你用这种语言来思考。也许我们都有这种经 历,当你要说英语的时候,口里象塞了一团棉花,没词儿。为什么呢?那是因为 我们平时生活中就不用英语来思考,所以脑子里的第一反应就会是你的母语,而 不是英语。很好的解决办法是,把你自己孤立出原本的语言环境,比如到国外读 书,去国外工作,其实工作经历有时候比学校更有用,因为你真正把你的语言用 到了实处。还有很重要的一点就是培养自己的兴趣,渗透到西方英语文化中去, 只有把自己融入他们的政治, ...


   专题八 形容词、 专题八单项选择 形容词、副词 【测试卷】 测试卷】 基础过关】 【A 组:基础过关】 1. Of the two coats, I’d choose the one to spare some money for a book. A. cheapest B. cheaper C. more expensive D. most expensive 2. My daughter cares more for new clothes than anything else in t ...