初三年级( 初三年级(上) 【知识梳理】 知识梳理】 I. 重点短语
  1. at the moment
  2. used to
  3. for a while
  4. walk away with sth.
  5. leave for some place
  6. sooner or later
  7. pay for
  8. come up with an idea
  9. think of
  10. have a try
  11. all over the world
  12. be famous for
  13. large numbers of
  14. all the year round
  15. no matter what
  16. give up
  17. for example
  18. by the way
  19. on business
  20. so far
  21. come true
  22. set off
  23. slow down
  24. go on doing
  25. wait for
  26. be proud of
  27. be afraid of
  28. speak highly of
  29. a year and a half
  30. half a year
  31. pick up
  32. as soon as
  33. keep… clean
  34. take care of
  35. cut down
  36. make a contribution to
  37. base on
  38. make sure
  39. take away
  40. begin with

  41. right now
  42. as soon as possible
  43. leave a message
  44. all kinds of things
  45. walk around
  46. fall asleep
  47. wake up
  48. go on a trip
  49. have a good time
  50. take photos
  51. come out
  52. come on
  53. have a family meeting
  54. talk about
  55. go for a holiday 56 go scuba diving
  57. write down
  58. by oneself
  59. walk along
  60. get a chance to do sth
  61. have a wonderful time
  62. book a room
  63. have an accident
  64. be interested in
  65. use sth. to do sth.
  66. make a TV show
  67. be amazed at
  68. take part in
  69. feed on
  70. get out of II. 重要句型
  1. Why don’t you do sth.?
  2. make sb. Happy
  3. borrow sth. from sb.
  4. forget to do sth.
  5. pay fro sth.
  6. return sth. To sb.
  7. learn sth. from sb.
  8. be famous for sth.
  9. No matter what…
  10. be with sb.
  11. go on doing sth.
  12. speak highly of sb.
  13. keep doing sth.

  14. allow sb. To do sth.
  15. encourage sb. to do sth.
  16. It is said that… III. 交际用语
  1. Excuse me, have you got …? Yes, I have. (Sorry, I haven’t.)
  2. Why don’t you …? Thanks, I will.
  3. Thanks a lot. (Thank you very much.) You are welcome.
  4. Have you ever done…? Yes, I have, once. (No, never.)
  5. I’ve just done… Really?
  6. What’s …like ?
  7. How long have you been…? Since…
  8. Have you ever been to…? I’ve never been there. (None of us has./ Only …has. )
  9. Would you like to have a try? I don’t think I can…
  10. What have you done since…?
  11. How long have you been at this …? For…
  12. How long has she/ he worked there…? She’s / He’s worked there for… / all her / his life.
  13. I’m sorry he isn’t here right now.
  14. May I help you?
  15. That’s very kind of you.
  16. Could we go scuba diving?
  17. Could you tell us how long we’re going to be away?
  18. Let’s try to find some information about it, OK?
  19. Could you please tell me how to search the Internet?
  20. Go straight along here.
  21. Please go to Gate
  12.
  22. Please come this way.
  23. Could you tell me what you think about Hainan Island?
  24. That sounds really cool! IV. 重要语法
  1. 宾语从句
  2. 现在完成时
  3. 一般过去时与现在完成时的用法比较: 名师讲解】 【名师讲解】
  1. Maybe/ may be (
  1) maybe 是副词,意思是“大概,也许”,常用作状语。
Maybe you put it in your bag.也许你把它放在包里了。 “Will he come tomorrow?”“Maybe not.” “他明天来吗?”“也许不”。 (
  2) may be 相当于是情态动词 may 与 be 动词搭配一起作谓语,意思是“也许是…,可能 是…”。 It may be 9:00 when they arrive.他们可能于九点到达。 The man may be a lawyer. 那人也许是律师。
  2. borrow/ lend/ keep/ use (
  1) borrow 表示的是从别人那里借来东西,即我们通常所说的“借进来”。 We often borrow books from our school library.我们经常从学校图书馆借书。 I borrowed this dictionary from my teacher. 我从老师那儿借来了这本字典。 borrow 是一个瞬间完成的动作,因此不能与时间段连用。 You can borrow my recorder for three days. ( 错误 ) I have borrowed this book for only one week. ( 错误 ) (
  2) lend 表示的是把自己的东西借给别人,即我们通常所说的“借出去”。 Thank you for lending me your bike.谢谢你把自行车借给我。 He often lends money to his brother.他经常借钱给他弟弟。 lend 与 borrow 一样,也是一个瞬间完成的 动作,不能与一段时间连用。 (
  3) keep 的意思也是“借”,但一般是指借来后的保存或使用阶段,是一段持续的时间,因 此可以与时 间段连用。 You can keep my recorder for three days.我的录音机你可以借用三天。 I have kept this book for only one week.这本书我才刚借了一星期。 (
  4) use 也可以当“借用”讲,但它的本意是“用,使用”。 May I use your ruler? 我能借你的尺子用一下吗? He had to use this public telephone.他不得不使用这部公用电话。
  3. leave/ leave for (
  1) leave 意思是“离开,留下”。 We left Shanghai two years ago.我们两年前离开了上海。 He left his cell phone in the taxi last week.他上周把手机落在出租车里了。 (
  2) leave for 意思是“前往”,表示要去的目的地。 We will leave for Tibet next month.我们将于下月去西藏。 The train is leaving for Moscow.这趟火车即将开往莫斯科。
  4. since/ for (
  1) since 用于完成时态,既能用作介词,也能用作连词,后常接时间点,意思是“自从”。 He has been a worker since he came into this city. 自从他来到这个城市,他就是工人了。 I have never seen him since we last met in Shanghai .
自从我们上次在上海见过之后,我再也没见过他。 since 作连词,还有“既然”的意思。 Since you are interested in it, just do it. 既然你对它感兴趣,那就做吧。
You can have fun now since you’ve finished your work. 既然你已经做完了功课,就开心玩会儿吧。 (
  2) for 用于完成时,用作介词,后常接一段时间,意思是“经过…”。 I have learned English for five years.我已经学了五年英语了。 They have waited for you for 30 minutes.他们已经等了你三十分钟了。 for 也可以用作连词,但意思是“因为”。 They missed the flight for they were late.他们由于完到了而误了航班。 He fell ill for many reasons.他由于多种原因病倒了。
  5. neither/ either/ both (
  1) neither 作代词是对两者都进行否定,意思为“两者都不”,作主语时谓语动词用单数. Neither of the boys is from England.这两个男孩都不是来自英国。 I know neither of them. 他们两个我都不认识。 neither 用作形容词,也修饰单数名词,意思与作代词时相同;用作连词时,一般与 nor 搭配,表示 “既不…也不”。作主语时,谓语动词也遵循就近原则。 She neither ate nor drank yesterday. 她昨天既不吃也不喝。 Neither he nor we play football on Sundays. 他和我们星期天都不踢球。 (
  2) either 作代词时, 是指两者中的任意一方,(两者之)每一个, 故作主语时谓语动词用单数. Either of the books is new.这两本书任何一本都是新的. She doesn’t like either of the films.这两部电影她都不喜欢. either 作形容词, 用来修饰单数名词,意思与作介词时相同. Either school is near my home. (这两所学校中的)任何一所学校都离我家很近.
Either question is difficult.两个问题(中的任何一个)都难. either 作连词时,一般与 or 搭配,表示两者选其一,意思是“不是…就是”。作主语时,谓 语动词遵循就近原则。 Either he or I am right.不是他就是我是对的。 Either my sister or my parents are coming to see me.不是我姐姐就是我父母要来 看我。 (
  3) both 作代词时,指的是所涉及到的“两者都”, 故作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。 I like both of the stories.这两个故事我都喜欢。 Both of my parents are teachers.我父母两人都是老师。 both 作形容词时,用来修饰两者,意思与作代词时相同. Both his arms are hurt.他的两只胳膊都受伤了。 Both these students are good at English. 这两个学生都擅长英语。
both 用作连词时, 多与 and 搭配, 表示“既…又, 不仅…而且”, 作主语时,谓语动词仍用 复数形式。 Both piano and violin are my bobbies.钢琴和小提琴都是我的爱好。 They study both history and physics. 他们既学历史,又学物理。
  6. find/look for/ find out (
  1) find 强调找的结果,意思是“找到”。此外还有“发现,发觉”的意思,后可接宾语从句。 Jim couldn’t find his hat.吉姆找不着帽子了。 Have you found your lost keys? 你找到丢失的钥匙了吗? He found the lights were on along the street.他发现沿街的灯都亮了 (
  2) look for 的意思为“寻找”,指的是找的动作而非结果。另外,还有“盼望,期待”的意思。 She is looking for her son.她正在找她的儿子。 We’ve been looking for the car since early this morning.我们从今天一大早就开始找这辆 车了。 I look for the coming holiday.我期待着即将来临的假期。 (
  3) find out 含有经过观察、研究或探索而得知的意思,后常接较抽象的事物,意思是“找 出,发现,查明(真相)”等。 I can find out who took my money away.我能查出谁拿了我的钱。 Could you find out when the plane arrives? 你能设法知道飞机何时到吗?
  7. forget to do/ forget doing (
  1) forget to do 是指忘记去做某件事了,即该事还没有做。 Please don’t forget to call this afternoon.今天下午不要忘了给我打电话。 I forgot to take some small change with me.我身上忘了带零钱了。 (
  2) forget doing 是指忘记某件已经做过的事情,即该事已经做了,但被忘记了。 He forgot telling me his address.他忘了告诉过我地址了。 They forgot having been here before.他们忘了以前曾来过这儿。
  8. stop doing/ stop to do (
  1) stop doing 是指停止做某事,即 doing 这个动作不再继续。 They stopped debating.他们停止了辩论。(不辩论了) He had to stop driving as the traffic lights changed in to red. 由于交通灯变成了红色,他 不得不停车。 (
  2) stop to do 是指停下来开始做另一件事,即停止原先的事,开始做 do 这个动作。 She stopped to have a rest.她停下来休息会儿。(开始休息) They stopped to talk.他们停下来开始交谈。
  9. except/ besides (
  1) except 是指不包括后面所提人或物在内的“除了”,可以理解为“撇开…不谈”,表示两部 分的不同。 Everyone is excited except me.
除我以外的每个人都很激动。(他们激动,而我却不激动) All the visitors are Japanese except him. 除他以外的所有游客都是日本人。(其他人是日本人,可他不是) (
  2)besides 是包括后面所提人或物在内的“除了”, 可以理解为“除之外…还、 除之外…又”, 表示两部分 的相似性。 Twenty-five students went to the cinema besides him. 除他以外,还有 25 个学生去看了电影。(他和另外 25 人都去了) We like biology besides English. 除了英语外,我们还喜欢生物。(生物和英语都喜欢) besides 还可用作副词,意思是“此外;而且”,常用于句首或句尾。 He is a great thinker, and besides, he is a politician. 他是一名伟大的思想家,除此以外,他还是一位政治家。 They encouraged me, and they supported me with money, besides. 他们不仅鼓励我,而且与我以金钱上的支持。
  10. keep doing/ keep on doing (
  1) keep doing 指的是连续地、坚持不断地做某事,中间不间断。 It kept blowing for a whole day.刮了一整天风了。 The temperature keeps dropping.温度持续下降。 (
  2) keep on doing 是指反复坚持做某事,但动作之间略有间隔。 They have kept on writing to each other for many years.他们已经互相通信多年了。 After drinking some water, he kept on talking.喝了一些水后,他坚持讲话。
  11. seem/ look (
  1) seem 一般着重于以客观迹象为依据,意思是“似乎、好象、看起来…”。 The baby seems to be happy.婴儿看上去似乎很高兴。 He seemed to be sorry for that.他似乎为那件事感到抱歉。 seem 能与 to do 结构连用,而 look 不能。 It seems to rain. 似乎要下雨了。 They seemed to have finished their work.他们似乎已经完成了工作。 在 it 作形式主语的句型中只能用 seem。 It seems that he is quite busy now.他现在看起来很忙。 It seems to us that there is nothing serious.在我看来没什么大不了的。 (
  2) look 用作“看起来;好像”时,常从物体的外观或样貌上来判断,是以视觉所接受的印 象为依据的。 The room looks clean.这间房看起来很干净。 The girl looks like her mother.那女孩看起来向她的妈妈。
  12. such/ so
(
  1)such 常用作形容词,用来修饰名词。 Don’t be such a fool.别这么傻。 He is such a clever boy.他是如此聪明的一个男孩。 (
  2) so 是副词,用来修饰形容词或副词。 He is so kind! 他真好心! Why did you come so late? 你为何回来得如此晚? 当名词前有 many, much, few, little 等表示多、少时,应该用 so。 He has so many friends.他有如此多的朋友。 Only so little time is left! 才剩这
 

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