动词种类: 谓语动词: 系动词(be, look, feel, get, become) ,助动词(be, do, have, will), 情态动词(can, may, must, would, should),行为动词, 非谓语动词:分词,不定式,动名词 vt. vi. 时态: 一般现在(第三人称单数)现在进行(现在分词) 完成进行 一般过去(过去式) 过去进行(现在分词) 过去完成 一般将来 现在完成(过去分词) 过去将来 (陈述性时态) (描述性时态) 语态: 主动 被动(一般现在,一般将来,一般过去) 语气: 陈述 虚拟 主谓一致:语法一致(单复数) 意义一致 His family is a large one. His family are all teachers. 就近一致 (neither…nor, either…or, not only…but also, or, there be…) One or two students are coming this evening. 句法: 基本句型 主谓 主系表 主谓宾 主谓双宾 主谓复宾 There be 句子种类 陈述 疑问 一般,特殊,选择,反意 祈使 感叹 句子结构 简单 并列 and, but, or, so 复合 状语从句(when,if) ,宾语从句,定语从句(that, who, where) 谓语动词
  1. 行为动词
  1) vt. 必须跟宾语,语法意义才完整 有主被动语态,但在下列特殊句型中 vt. 后不能跟宾语 have… to do 有……要干 give… to do 给……干 It’s + adj. + to do
  2) vi. 不能直接跟宾语,只有主动语态,若要及物必须跟上相应 prep.
  3) vt. & vi. open, close, burn, sing, study, sell, read, write, clean, keep, act, wash, feel
  2. 系动词 系+ adj. adv. n. prep. 从句,不定式,分词

  1) 常见系动词:be, become, seem, look, feel, smell, sound, taste, turn, keep, get, look like,
  2) 固定搭配:keep silent, keep quiet, go bad, fall in/asleep, get+adj.,turn+adj.
  3) 系动词通常没被动,少数有进行时 be feeling, be getting
  3. 延续性 V. 与终止性 V.
  1) 终止性 V. 表延续的转换 换时态: V. + ago 换词 : arrive / get to / reachbe here / there endbe over get back / returnbe back borrowkeep buyhave gobe there comebe here
  2) 终止性动词的进行时表将要或反复不断的动作 He is jumping over there. 他在那边反复跳。
  3) 延续性动词与具体时刻的状语连用时用进行时 We were waiting for you at 3 yesterday afternoon.
  4) while 引出的时间状语从句中的 V. 必须用延续性动词,多为进行时。
  5) 终止性动词否定+until 直到……才 延续性动词肯定+until 一直干到……为止 Unit 1 How do you study for a test? Grammar focus
  1. How do you study for a test? I study by listening to tapes.
  2. How do you learn English? I learn by studying with a group.
  3. Do you learn English by reading aloud? Yes, I do. e.g. How do you study English? I study by listening to cassettes / studying with a group / watching TV / listening to English language music / taking part in English classes after school / getting an English tutor / reading English magazines / surfing the Internet … Do you learn English by …? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. Difficulties;
  1. I can’t read fluently.
  2. I can’t spell some English words.
  3. I can’t understand spoken English.
  4. I can’t pronounce some of the words.
  5. I make mistakes in Grammar.
  6. I can’t understand the words in newspapers and magazines.
  7. I don’t get much writing practice. Solutions:
  1. Maybe you should find a pen pal.
  2. You can always write the new words in your notebook and learn them at home.
  3. Why don’t you join an English language club?
  4. You can write English diary every day.
  5. Listening can help.
  6. They learnt by using English.
  7. The best way to learn English words is by reading English magazines.
  8. He thinks studying grammar is a great way to learn a language.
  9. Watching English movies isn’t a bad way.
  10.Joining the English club is the best way to improve your English. 语法: 动名词 v.-ing 动名词如何用?
一. 介词后面的动词要变为动名词(-ing 动词)
  1. study/learn by watching/listening…
  2. What/How about reading/speaking…
  3. …is one of the secrets of becoming a good language learner.
  4. When we ask about studying grammar, she said…
  5. Thank you for inviting me. 二. 作主语的动词要变为动名词(-ing 动词)
  1. Studying grammar is a great way to learn English.(句子的主语)
  2. I think watching English movies isn’t a bad way.(从句的主语)
  3. Listening can help. (句子的主语) Memorizing the words of pop songs helped a little. He thinks studying grammar is a great way to learn a language. 三. 有些动词后面要接动名词 We end up speaking in Chinese. Why don’t you join a club to practice speaking English? Now I am enjoying learning English. I finish reading the book. Would you mind taking out the trash? I often spend money buying books. 四. 有些词组里用动名词 reading skills 阅读技巧 speaking skills 口语技巧 listening practice 听力练习 writing practice 写作练习 注意:spoken English 口头英语 written English 书面英语 英语基本句式 英语句子有五个基本句式。这五个基本句式可以演变出多种复杂的英语句子。绝大多数 英语句子都是由这五个基本句式生成的。 S 十 V 主谓结构 S 十 V 十 F 主系表结构 S 十 V 十 O 主谓宾结构 S 十 V 十 O1 十 O2 主谓双宾结构 S 十 V 十 O 十 C 主谓宾补结构 说明:S=主语;V=谓语;P=表语;O=宾语;O
  1=间接宾语;O
  2=直接宾语;C=宾语 补足语 五个基本句式详细解释如下:
  1.S 十 V 句式: 在此句式中,V 是不及物动词,又叫自动词(vi.)。例如: He runs quickly.他跑得快。 They listened carefully.他们听得很仔细。 He suffered from cold and hunger.他挨冻受饿。 My ink has run out.我的钢笔水用完了。
  2.S 十 V 十 P 句式: 在此句式中,V 是系动词(link v.),常见的系动词有:look,seem, appear,sound,feel,taste,smell,grow,get,fall ill/asleep,stand/sit still,become,turn 等。例如: He seen interested in the book.他似乎对这本书感兴趣。 The story sounds interesting.这个故事听起来有趣。
The desk feels hard.书桌摸起来很硬。 The cake tastes nice.饼尝起来很香。 The flowers smell sweet and nicc.花闻起来香甜。 You have grown taller than before.你长得比以前高了。 He has suddenly fallen ill.他突然病倒了。 He becomes a teacher when he grew up.他长大后当了教师。 注意:有些动词同时也是及物动词,可构成 SVO 句式,例如: He looked me up and down.他上下打量我。 They are tasting the fish.他们在品尝鱼。 Please turn the sentence into English.请把这个句于泽成英语。
  3.S 十 V 十 O 句式: 在此句式中,V 是及物动词(vt.),因此有宾语。例如: I saw a film yesterday.我昨天看了一部电影。 Have you read the story? 你读过这个故事吗? They found their home easily.他们很容易找到他们的家。 They built a house last year. 他们去年建了一所房子。 They've put up a factory in the village. 他们在村里建了一座工厂。 They have taken good care of the children. 这些孩子他们照看得很好。
  4.S 十 V 十 O1 十 O2 句式: 在此句式中,V 是带有双宾语的及物动词。常见的须带双宾语 的动词有 give,ask,bring,offer,send,pay,lend,show,tell,buy,get;rob,warn 等。 例如: He gave me a book/a book to me.他给我一本书。 He brought me a pen/a pen to me.他带给我一枝钢笔。 He offered me his seat/his seat to me.他把座位让给我。 注意下边动词改写后介词的变化: Mother bought me a book/a book for me. 妈妈给我买了一本书。 He got me a chair/a chair for me. 他给我弄了一把椅子。 Please do me a favor/a favor for me.请帮我一下。
  5.S 十 V 十 O 十 C 句式: 在此句式中,V 是有宾语补足语的及物动词。常带宾语补足语的 词有形容词、副词、介词短语、名词、不定式、现在分词、过去分词。 常见的可接宾语补足语的动词很多, 哪些动词可接哪几种形式作宾补, 须根据动词的惯用法 而定,不能统而概论。请看下面的例子。 They made the girl angry.他们使这个女孩生气了。 They found her happy that day.他们发现那天她很高兴。 They named the boy Charlie.他们给这个男孩起名为查理。 I saw him come in and go out. 我见他进来又出去。 They felt the car moving fast.他们感到汽车行驶得很快。 I heard the glass broken just now.我刚才听到玻璃碎了。 Unit 2 I used to be afraid of dark. 重点短语 used to do…过去常常做某事 be afraid of… 害怕 a couple of 一些,若干 contact lenses 隐形眼镜 on the swim team 在游泳队 be terrified of… 害怕,恐惧 worry about 担心 not…any more 不再 take sb. to 带某人到某地 be interested in 对感兴趣
重点句子
  1. I used to be short.
  2. You used to have long hair.
  3. He used to be afraid of the dark.
  4. She used to be terrified of being alone.
  5. Did you use to wear glasses?
  6. I wasn’t very outgoing… 语法讲解
  1. used to do sth. 一、 used to do sth. used to 中的 to 是不定式符号,后加动词原形,表示“过去常常做某事,而现在已不做”,时 态形式不变。
  1、 肯定句: use to + v. 原形 He used to get up early. The river used to be clean.
  2、 否定句: 常用 didn’t use to + v. 原形 He didn’t use to get up early. The river didn’t use to be clean.
  3、 疑问句:常用 Did …use to…? Did you use to be a teacher?
  4、 反意疑问句 She used to live in the country, didn’t she? There used to be a big tree here, didn’t there? 二、be used to + n. / doing be used to 中的 to 是介词, 后面加名词或 doing sth., 其中 be 有各种时态的变化形式, 表示“习 惯于……”。例: She is used to living in the country. He is used to hard work / to working hard. I am not used to being spoken to in that rude way. You’ll soon be / get / become / grow used to our way of living. I have been used to rice / eating rice. 三. used to 和一般过去时的区别: used to 仅指过去的习惯,而且是现在已经不存在的习惯。如果用一般过去时表示过去的 习惯,则需要指出时间。 My father used to smoke, but now he doesn’t smoke any more. * used to 不能与 since 或 for 组成的时间词连用。
  2. Don’t you remember me? 难道你不记得我了吗? 这句话是否定形式的疑问句,表示期待、请求或希望肯定回答的语气。 类似的句子还有:Can’t you play basketball? Isn’t it hot here?
  3. Did you use to play the piano? Yes, I did. But now I’m more interested in the violin. be interested in 意思是 “对……感兴趣”, 表示比较级时, more 或 less 放在 interested 前面 将 Are you interested in the picture? I used to like music, but now I’m more interested in sports. He is less interested in math than English.
  4. People sure change. 人们确实会变的。 在句中是副词,表示“确实,的确” 常用作形容词,意思是确信的,无疑的,有把握的 be sure of… 对……有把握 He is sure of his success.
be sure that… 确信 I’m sure that I can win. be sure to do… 一定要做某事 Be sure to see the movie, it’s great. make sure 确定,查明 Make sure that they can hear you.
  5. I used to be afraid of being alone. 我过去害怕独处。 A: be afraid of sth/doing, be afraid to do sth 害怕……,害怕做…… I used to be afraid of snakes. He used to be afraid of speaking in front of a group. He is a afraid to walk home at night. B: alone 是形容词,意思是“单独的”,“独自的” The old lady lives alone in the house. 这个老妇人独自住在这座房子里。 He likes being alone. 他喜欢独处。 alone 与 lonely 的辨析 alone 是形容词,做表语;lonely 可以做表语,也可以做定语。 alone 的意思是“单独的,独自的”,而 lonely 则指“孤独的,寂寞的” The old man lives alone, but she doesn’t feel lonely. 这位老人独自生活,但并不感到孤独。
  6.I go to sleep with my bedroom light on. 我开着卧室的灯睡觉。 表示附带、伴随的状况,意思是“一边……着,同时” He left with the door open. She said goodbye with tears in her eyes.
  7. Before I started high school, I used to spend a lot of time playing games with my friends, but I just don’t have the time any more. A.spend 动词,表示“花费(时间、金钱等) ,度过”,用法如下: spend (time, money) on sth. 在某事上花费(时间、金钱) Mary spends more than an hour on homework everyday. He spent ten dollars on the book. spend …(in) doing sth 花费…做… He spends much time playing games with his friends after school. B.any more 意思是“(不)再,再也(不)”,用于否定句和疑问句 They don’t live here any more.
  8. My life has changed a lot in the last few years. in the last…或 in the past…意思是“在过去的…时间里”,这个短语一般要和完成时连用。 He has made a great progress in the last few months. 难点分析
  1. afford 经受得起,负担得起 I
 

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