初一至初三全程英语知识点总结及练习 初一年级(上) 【知识梳理】 I. 重点短语
  1. Sit down
  2. on duty
  3. in English
  4. have a seat
  5. at home
  6. look like
  7. look at
  8. have a look
  9. come on
  10. at work
  11. at school
  12. put on
  13. look after
  14. get up
  15. go shoppingII. 重要句型
  1. help sb. do sth.
  2. What about…?
  3. Let’s do sth.
  4. It’s time to do sth.
  5. It’s time for …
  6. What’s…? It is…/ It’s…
  7. Where is…? It’s….
  8. How old are you? I’m….
  9. What class are you in? I’m in….
  10. Welcome to….
  11.
What’s …plus…? It’s….
  12. I think…
  13. Who’s this? This is….
  14. What can you see? I can see….
  15. There is (are) ….
  16. What colour is it (are they)? It’s (They’re)…
  17. Whose …is this?
  18. What time is it? It’s….III. 交际 用语
  1. Good morning, Miss/Mr….
  2. Hello! Hi!
  3. Nice to meet you. Nice to meet you, too.
  4. How are you? I’m fine, thank you/thanks. And you?
  5. See you. See you later.
  6. Thank you! You’re welcome.
  7. Goodbye! Bye!
  8. What’s your name? My name is ….
  9. Here you are. This way, please.
  10. Who’s on duty today?
  11. Let’s do.
  12. Let me see.IV. 重要语法
  1. 动词 be 的用法; 人称代词和物主代词的用法; 名词的单复数和所有格的用法;
  2.
  3.
  4. 冠词的基本用法;
  5. There be 句型的用法。 【名师讲解】
  1.in/on 在表示空间位置时,in 表示在某个空间的范围以内 on 表示在某一个物体的表面之上。 例 如 : There is a bird in the tree. 树 上 有 只 鸟 。 There is a picture on the wall. 墙 上 有 张 图 。
  2. this/that/these/those(
  1)this 常常用来指在时间、地点上更接近讲话人的人和事,these 是 this 的复数形式。that 常常用来指在时间、 地点上离讲话人更远一点的人和事, those 时 that 的复数形式。 例如: You look in this box and I’ll look in that one over there.你看看这个盒子,我去看那边的那个盒子。I want this car, not that car. 我 想要这辆小汽车,不是那一辆。Take these books to his room, please. 请把这些书拿到他房间去。This is mine; that’s yours. 这个是我的,那个是你的。These are apples; those are oranges. 这些是苹果,那些是橘子。(
  2) 在打电话的用语中,this 常常指的是我,that 常常指的是对方。例如:This is Mary speaking. Who’s that? 我 是玛丽。你是谁?
  3. There be/ haveThere be "有",其确切含意为"某处或某时存在某人或某物。"其结构是: There be + 某人或某物 + 表示地点或时间的状语。There be 后面的名词实际上是主语,be 动词的形式要 和主语在数上保持一致, 动词后面的名词是单数或不可数名词时用 is, be 名词是复数时用 are。 例如: There (
  1) is a big bottle of coke on the table. 桌上有一大瓶子可乐。(
  2) There is a doll in the box. 那个盒子里有个娃娃。 (
  3) There are many apples on the tree. 那树上有许多苹果。 总之, There be 结构强调的是一种客观存在的"有"。 have 表示"拥有,占有,具有",即:某人有某物(sb. have / has sth.)。主语一般是名词或代词,与主语是所 属关系。例如:(
  4) I have two brothers and one sister.我有两个兄弟,一个姐姐。(
  5) That house has four rooms. 那所房子有四个房间。
  4. look/ see/ watch (
  1)look 表示“看、瞧” ,着重指认真看,强调看的动作,表示有 意识地注意看,但不一定看到,以提醒对方注意如:Look! The children are playing computer games. 瞧!孩 子们在玩电脑游戏。Look! What’s that over there? 看!那边那个是什么?单独使用是不及物动词,如强调 看某人/物,其后接介词 at,才能带宾语,如:He’s looking at me。他正在看着我。(
  2)see 强调“看”的结 果, 着重的是 look 这个动作的结果, 意思是 “看到” see 是及物动词, , 后面能直接跟宾语。 如: What can you see in the picture? 你能在图上看到什么?Look at the blackboard. What did you see on it?看黑板!你看到了什 么?(
  3)watch“观看,注视” ,侧重于场面,表示全神贯注地观看、观察或注视某事务的活动,强调过程, 常用于“看电视、看足球、看演出”等。如:Yesterday we watched a football match on TV.昨天我们从电视上 看了一场足球比赛。
  4. put on/ / in put on 意为“穿上,戴上” 。主要指“穿上”这一动作, 后面接表示服装、 鞋帽的名词。in 是介词,表示“穿着”强调状态。在句中可以做定语、标语和状语。如:It’s cold outside, put on your coat. 外面冷, 穿上你的外衣。 puts on his hat and goes out. He 他戴上帽子, 走了出去。 woman The “家庭“, “家庭成 in a white blouse is John’s mother.穿白色衬衣的那个妇女是 John 的妈妈。
  5. house/ home/familyhouse : “房 子” ,指居住的建筑物; Home: “家” ,指一个人同家人共同经常居住的地方; Family: 员” 。例如:Please come to my house this afternoon. 今天下午请到我家来。He is not at home. 他不在家。My family all get up early. 我们全家都起得很早。
  6. fine, nice, good, well 四者都可用作形容词表示"好"之意,但
前三者既可作表语又可作定语,而后者仅用作表语。主要区别在于:(
  1) fine 指物时表示的是质量上的"精细 ",形容人时表示的是"身体健康",也 可以用来指"天气晴朗"。例如:Your parents are very fine. 你父母身 体很健康。That's a fine machine.那是一台很好的机器 It's a fine day for a walk today.今天是散步的好时候。 (
  2)nice 主要侧重于人或物的外表,有"美好","漂亮"的意思,也可用于问候或赞扬别人。例如:Lucy looks nice. 露西看上去很漂亮。These coats are very nice. 那些裙子很好看。Nice to meet you. 见到你很高兴。It's very nice of you. 你真好。(
  3)good 形容人时指"品德好",形容物时指"质量好",是表示人或物各方面都好的 普通用语。例如:Her son is a good student. 她儿子是一个好学生。The red car is very good. 那辆红色小汽车 很好。(
  4)well 只可用来形容人的"身体好",但不能作定语,它也能用作副词作状语,多放在所修饰的动词 之后。例如:I'm very well, thanks. 我身体很好,谢谢。My friends sing well. 我的朋友们歌唱得好。
  1. (2009 年北京市中考试题) Mary, please show your picture. A. my B. mine C. I D. me D. The
  2. (2009 年上海市徐汇区中考试题) orange on the desk is for you, Mike. A. A B.An
  3. (2009 年哈尔滨市中考试题)What the number of the girls in your class? A. is B. am C. are D. be
  4. (2010 年陕西省中考试题)There a football match on TV this evening. A. will have B. is going to be C. has D. is going to have 【知识梳理】I. 重点短语
  1. a bottle of
  2. a little
  3. a lot (of)
  4. all day
  5. be from
  6. be over
  7. come back
  8. come from
  9. do one’s homework
  10. do the shopping
  11. get down
  12. get home
  13. get to
  14. get up
  15. go shopping
  16. have a drink of
  17. have a look
  18. have breakfast
  19. have lunch
  20. have supper
  21. listen to
  22. not…at all
  23. put…away
  24. take off
  25. throw it like that
  26. would like
  27. in the middle of the day
  28. in the morning / afternoon/ evening
  29. on a farm
  30. in a factoryII. 重要句型
  1. Let sb. do sth.
  2. Could sb. do sth.?
  3. would like sth.
  4. would like to do sth.
  5. What about something to eat?
  6. How do you spell …?
  7. May I borrow…? III. 交际用语
  1. ?Thanks very much!?You're welcome.
  2. Put it/them away.
  3. What's wrong?
  4. I think so. I don't think so.
  5. I
C. /
About twenty.
want to take some books to the classroom.
  6. Give me a bottle of orange juice, please.Please give it / them back tomorrow. OK.
  9. What's your favourite sport?
  10. Don't worry.
  11.I’m (not) good at basketball.
  12. Do you want a go?
  13. That's right./ That‘s all right./ All right.
  14. Do you have a dictionary / any dictionaries?Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.
  15. We / They have some CDs.We / They don’t have any CDs.
  16. What day is it today / tomorrow?It’s Monday.
  17. May I borrow your colour pens, please?Certainly. Here you are.
  18. Where are you from?From Beijing.
  19. What's your telephone number in New York?
  20. Do you like hot dogs?Yes, I do. ( A little. / A lot. / Very much.)No, I don't. ( I don't like them at all.)
  21. What does your mother like?She likes dumplings and vegetables very much.
  22. When do you go to school every day?I go to school at 7:00 every day.
  23. What time does he go to bed in the evening?He goes to bed at 10:
  00. IV. 重要语法
  1.人称代词的用 法;
  2. 祈使句;
  3. 现在进行时的构成和用法;
  4.动词 have 的用法;
  5.一般现在时构成和用法;
  6.可数 名词和不可数名词的构成和用法
  1. That's right./ That‘s all right./ All right.That’s right 意为“对的” ,表示赞 同对方的意见、看法或行为,肯定对方的答案或判断。例如:"I think we must help the old man.""我想我们 应该帮助这位老人。""That's right."或 "You're right.""说得对"。That’s all right.意为“不用谢”“没关系” 、 , 用来回答对方的致谢或道歉。 例如: "Many thanks." "That's all right." "Sorry. It's broken." "That's all right."All right.意为“行了”“可以” 、 ,表示同意对方的建议或要求。有时还可以表示“身体很好”"Please tell me about it." "请把此事告诉我。" "All right.""好吧。Is your mother all right?你妈身体好吗
  2. make/do 这两个词都可 以解释为“做” ,但含义却不同,不能混用。make 指做东西或制东西,do 指做一件具体的事。Can you make a paper boat for me? 你能为我做个纸船吗?He’s doing his homework now.他正在做他的作业。
  3. say/speak/talk/tellsay:是最口语化的最普通的一个词,意为“说出”“说道” 、 ,着重所说的话。如: want to “I go there by bus” , he said . 他说, “我要坐汽车到那里去。 ”Please say it in English .请用英语说。speak : “说 话”着重开口发声, , 不着重所说的内容, 一般用作不及物动词 (即后面不能直接接宾语 ) 。 Can you speak 如: about him? 你能不能说说他的情况?I don’ like to speak like this. 我不喜欢这样说话。 t speak 作及物动词解
时,只能和某种语言等连用,表达在对话中恰当使用词汇的能力。如:She speaks English well.她英语说得 好。talk : 与 speak 意义相近,也着重说话的动作,而不着重所说的话,因此,一般也只用作不及物动词, 不过,talk 暗示话是对某人说的,有较强的对话意味,着重指连续地和别人谈话。如:I would like to talk to him about it . 我想跟他谈那件事。 women like to talk with children.老年妇女喜欢和孩子们交谈。 : “告 Old tell 诉”,除较少情况外,一般后面总接双宾语。如:He’s telling me a story.他在给我讲故事。tell a lie 撒谎 sb. to do sth. /tell sb. not to do sth tell 如:.Miss Zhao often tells us to study hard.
  4. do cooking/ do the cookingdo
cooking 作“做饭”解,属泛指。do the cooking 特指某一顿饭或某一家人的饭。cooking 为动名词,不能用 作复数,但前面可用 some, much 修饰。从 do some cooking 可引出许多类似的短语:do some washing 洗些 衣服 do some shopping 买些东西 do some reading 读书 do some writing 写些东西 do some fishing 钓鱼从以 上短语可引申出另一类短语,不能用 some, much 或定冠词。go shopping 去买东西 go fishing 去钓鱼 go boating 去划船 go swimming 去游泳
  5. like doing sth./ like to do sth.like doing sth. 与 like to do sth. 意思相 同,但用法有区别。前者强调一般性的爱好或者表示动作的习惯性和经常性;后来表示一次性和偶然性的 动作。例如:He likes playing football, but he doesn‘t like to play football with Li Ming.他喜欢踢足球,但是 他不喜欢和李明踢。 other/ others/ the other/ another
  6. other 表其余的, 别的, Have you any other questions? 如: 你还有其他问题吗?others 别的人,别的东西.如:In the room some people are American, the others are French. 在屋子里一些人是美国人,其他的是法国人。 other 表另一个 the (二者之中) one…, other…如: the One of my two brothers studies English, the other studies Chinese.我两个哥哥中的一个学习英文,另一个学中文。another 表三者以上的另一个,另一些如:There is room for another few books on the shelf.书架上还可以放点书。
  7. in the tree/ on the treein the tree 与 on the tree.译成中文均为"在树上"但英语中有区别。in the tree 表示某人、某 事 (不属于树本身生长出的别的东西) 落在树上, 表示树的枝、 叶、 花、 果等长在树上时, 要使用 on the tree. 如: There are some apples on the tree. 那棵树上有些苹果。 There is a bird in the tree. 那棵树上有只鸟。 some/
  8. any some 和 any 既可修饰可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词。但有以下两点需要注意。(
  1)some 常用于肯定 句中,any 常用
 

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