Unit Nine Text
第九单元 课文
Throughout the ages different ideas have been expressed about the workings of the human brain.
It is only recently, however ,
that science has begun to give us some idea of how the brain really works.
THE BRAIN THE MOST POWERFUL COMPUTER IN THE UNIVERSE
人脑
Man still has a lot to learn about the most powerful and complex part of his body-the brain.
人类对于其身体中最有功效的,最为复杂的部位??人脑,仍有很多需要了解的东西。
In ancient times men did not think that the brain was the centre of mental activity.
在古代,人们并不认为人脑是智力活动的中心。
Aristotle the philosopher of ancient Greece thought that the mind was based in the heart.
古希腊哲学家亚里士多德认为思想寓于心脏这中。
It was not until the 18th century that man realised that the whole of the brain was involved in the workings of the mind.
直到18世纪人类才认识到,整个人脑都卷入了思想活动。
During the 19th century scientists found that when certain parts of the brain were damaged
在19世纪,科学家们发现,当人脑的某些部位受到损伤时,
men lost the ability to do certain things.
人们便失去了做某些事情的能力。
And so, people thought that each part of the brain controlled a different activity.
于是,人们便认为,人脑的每一个部位都控制着一种不同的活动。
But modern research has found that this is not so.
但是现代的研究已经发现,事实并非如此。
It is not easy to say exactly what each part of the brain does.
要确切地说出脑子的每一个部位起什么作用并不是一件容易的事情。
In the past 50 years there has been a great increase in the amount of research being done on the brain.
在过去50年中,对人脑所做的研究在数量上有了很大增长。
Chemists and biologists have found that the way the brain works is far more complicated than they had thought.
化学家和生物学家已经发现,人脑的活动方式比他们原告所想的远为复杂。
In fact many people believe that we are only now really starting to learn the truth about how the human brain works.
实际上,很多人相信,对于人脑活动的真相,我们只是现在才真正开始有所了解。
The more scientists find out,
科学家们发现的越多,
the more questions they are unable to answer.
他们无法回答的问题也就越多。
For instance,
例如,
chemists have found that over 100,000 chemical reactions take place in the brain every second.
化学家们发现,在人脑中每秒要发生十万次以上的化学反应。
Mathematicians who have tried to use computers to copy the way the brain works have found
试图利用计算机来复制人脑活动方式的数学家们发现,
that even using the latest electronic epuipment they would have to build a computer which weighed over 10,000 kilos.
即使动用最先进的电子设备,他们也需要建造一台重一万公斤以上的计算机才行。
Some recent research also suggests that we remember everything that happens to us.
某项新近的研究还表明,我们能够记住所有我们经历过的事情。
We may not be able to recall this information,
我们也许不能回忆起这些信息,
but it is all stored in our brains.
但它们却都贮存在我们的大脑里。
Scientists hope that if we can discover how the brain works,
科学家们希望,如果我们能够发现人脑是怎样活动的,
the better use we will be able to put it to .
我们将能够更好地运用它。
For example, how do we learn language?
例如,我们是怎样学习语言的呢?
Man differs most from all the other animals in his ability to learn and use language
人跟其他动物的最大区别就在于人能够学习并使用语言,
but we still do not know exactly how this is done.
Some children learn to speak and read and write when they are very young compared to average children.
跟一般的孩子相比,有些孩子很小就学会了说、读、写。
But scientists are not sure why this happens.
但科学家们对于这种事情发生的原因却不太清楚。
They are trying to find out whether there is something about the way we teach language to children which in fact prevents children from learning sooner.
他们正在试图查明,在我们教孩子们学习语言的方法中是不是有什么东西实际上却妨碍了他们学得更快些。
Earlier scientists thought that during a man's lifetime the power of his brain decreased.
早些时候的科学家们认为,在人的一生中,大脑的机能会逐渐减弱。
But it is now thought that this is not so.
但现在人们认为,情况并非如此。
As long as the brain is given plenty of exercise it keeps its power.
只要脑子得到充分运用,它就会保持其机能。
It has been found that an old person who has always been mentally active has a quicker mind than a young person who has done only physical work.
人们发现,一个智力上一直活跃的老人,他的头脑比一个只干体力活的年轻人更敏捷。
It is now thought that the more work we give our brains,
现在人们认为,我们让大脑工作得越多,
the more work they are able to do.
它就能干更多的工作。
Other people now believe that we use only 1% of our brains' full potential.
还有一些人现在相信,我们只利用了大脑全部潜在能力的百分之一。
They say that the only limit on the power of the brain is the limit of what we think is possible.
他们说,人脑机能的唯一限度是我们认为能办到哪些事情的限度。
This is probably because of the way we are taught as children.
这很可能是我们小时候受教育的方式所造成的。
When we first start learning to use our minds we are told what to do,
当我们最初开始学着运用我们的头脑时,我们便被告知该做些什么,
for example, to remember certain facts,
例如,该记住某些事实;
but we are not taught how our memory works and how to make the best use of it .
但是却没有人告诉我们我们的记忆怎样动作以及怎样才能最好地运用它。
We are told to make notes but we are not taught how our brains accept information and which is the best way to organise the information we want our brains to accept.
别人叫我们记笔记,但却不告诉我们我们的脑子是怎样接受信息的,什么是对我们希望自己的大脑接受的信息加以条理化的最好方法。
This century man has made many discoveries about the universe
本世纪人类已经对于宇宙,有了很多发现,??
the world outside himself.
人体外部的世界
But he has also started to look into the workings of that other universe which is inside himself-
但是人类也已经开始研究其自身内部的另外一个宇宙的活动了,这另外一个宇宙就是
the human brain.
人脑。
New Words
单词
Computer n.
计算机
Universe n.
宇宙
Complex a.
错综复杂的,难懂的
Ancient a.
古代的;古老的
Philosopher n.
哲学家
Philosophy n.
哲学
Involve vt.
使卷入
Working n.
运转,运行;活动
Ability n.
能力
Exactly ad.
确切地;精确地
Exact a.
精确的;准确的
Amount n.
数量,数额
Chemist n.
化学家
Biologist n.
生物学家
Biology n.
生物学
Complicated a.
难懂的;复杂的
Chemical a.
化学的
Unable a.
不能的;不会的
Reaction n.
反应
Mathematician n.
数学家
Equipment n.
设备,装置
Equip vt.
装备,配备
Kilo = kilogram
公斤,千克
Recent a.
近来的
Recall vt.
记得;回忆起
Differ vi.
不同
Mentally ad.
智力上,脑力上
Physical a.
身体的;物质的;物理学的
Potential n.
潜力
Limit n.
局限,限度
Phrases & Expressions
短语及表达
Put....to (good ) use
(好好)利用
Differ from
与……不同
Compared to / with
与……相比
Made notes
记笔记
Look into
调查,观察
Proper Names
专有名词
Aristotle
亚里士多德
Greece n.
希腊
 

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