Unit Ten
第十课
Text
课文
Are we too quick to blame and slow to praise?
我们是否因为太快而没有去责备或是因为太慢而没有表扬?
It seems we are.
看起来我们真如此。
PROFITS OF PRAISE
赞扬的好处
Janet Graham
珍妮特?格雷厄姆
It was the end of my exhausting first day as waitress in a busy New York restaurant .
我在纽约一家生意繁忙的餐馆做女侍的第一天,令人精疲力尽的第一天,就要结束了。
My cap had gone awry,
我的帽子歪了,
my apron was stained,
围裙上污迹斑斑,
my feet ached.
两脚疼痛。
The loaded trays I carried felt heavier and heavier.
我感到手中盛着食物的托盘越来越重。
Weary and discouraged,
我又疲倦又沮丧,
I didn't seem able to do anything right .
仿佛什么事情都没法干好。
As I made out a complicated check for family with several children who had changed their icecream order a dozen times,
当我为有好几个孩子的一家人开好一份复杂的帐单时??因为这些孩子们在要冰淇淋时换来换去有十几次之多
I was ready to quit.
??我便准备辞职不干了。
Then the father smiled at he handed me my tip.
这时候,那位做父亲的一边把小费交给我,一边对我微微一笑。
"Well done,"he said.
“干得很好,”他说。
"You've looked after us really well. "
“你对我们照顾得真是太好了。”
suddenly my tiredness vanished.
听了这话,我的倦意顿时消失了。
I smiled back,
我对他也报以微笑;
And later,
后来,
when the manager asked me how I'd liked my first day,
经理问我对第一天感觉怎么样时,
I said, "Fine!"
我说:“好极了!”
Those few words of praise had changed everything.
那两句赞扬的话改变了一切。
Praise is like sunlight to the human spirit;
对于人的精神来说,赞扬就像阳光一样;
we cannot flower and grow without it .
没有它我们便不能开花生长。
And yet,
然而
while most of us are only too ready to apply to others the cold wind of criticism,
我们大多数人动不动就对别人刮起批评的寒风,
we are somehow reluctant to give our fellows the warm sunshine of praise.
而不知为什么却不愿意把表扬的温暖阳光给予我们的同伴。
Why-when one word can bring such pleasure?
只有一句话就能带来这样的欢乐,我们为什么却不愿意这样做呢?
A friend of mine who travels widely always tries to learn a little of the language of any place she visits.
我有一个到处旅行的朋友总是努力学一点她要去访问的国家的语言。
She's not much of a linguist,
她并不是什么了不起的语言学家,
but she does know how to say one word --"beautiful" --in several languages.
但她的确知道怎样用几种语言说一个词??“美极了”。
She can use it to a mother holding her baby,
她可以对一个怀抱婴儿的母亲
Or to a lonely salesman fishing out picture of his family.
或者对一个从身上掏出全家照的寂寞的推销员用上这个词。
The ability has earned her friends all over the world.
这种能力为她在全世界赢得了朋友。
It's strange how chary we are about praising.
奇怪的是我们对赞扬何其慎重。
Perhaps it's because few of us know how to accept compliments gracefully.
这也许是因为我们很少有人知道怎样大大方方地接受赞扬。
Instead,
相反,
we are embarrassed and shrug off the words we are really so glad to hear.
我们往往会不知所措,对于我们实际上非常乐意听到的话却耸耸肩膀不屑理睬。
Because of this defensive reaction,
由于这种防御性的反应,
Direct compliments are surprisingly difficult to give.
予以直接的赞扬就变得极为困难了。
That is why some of the most valued pats on the back are those which come to us indirectly,
那就是为什么一些宝贵的赞许鼓励之间往往是间接地传达给我们,
In a letter or passed on by a friend.
在信中或通过朋友。
When one thinks of the speed with which spiteful remarks are conveyed,
当我们想到那些充满恶意的言词传播的速度之快,
it seems a pity that there isn't more effort to relay pleasing and flattering comments.
似乎太遗憾了,人们没有做出更大的努力来传递令人愉快、使人高兴的话语。
It's especially rewarding to give praise in areas in which effort generally goes unnoticed or unmentioned.
对于通常不为人们注意或提及的努力加以赞许是特别有益的。
An artist gets complimented for a glorious picture,
艺术家因画出一幅绚丽多彩的画而受到赞美,
a cook for a perfect meal.
厨师因烧出一顿美餐而受到称赞。
But do you ever tell your laundry manager how pleased you are when the shirts are done just right?
但你可曾告诉洗衣店的经理,当你的衬衫被洗得干干净净,烫得平平整整时,你是多么高兴吗?
Do you ever praise your paper boy for getting the paper to you on time 365days a year?
你可曾因为你的童年365天都按时送报上门而夸奖过他?
Praise is particularly appreciated by those doing routine jobs: gas-station attendants,
那些从事例行工作的人们特别懂得赞扬的意义,如汽车加油站的服务员、
waitresses even housewives.
女待者??甚至是家庭主妇。
Do you ever go into a house and say,
当你走进一家住房时,你可曾说过:
"What a tidy room"?
“多么整洁的房间啊?”
Hardly anybody does.
几乎没有人这么说过。
That's why housework is considered such a dreary grind.
家务劳动之所以被认为是沉闷乏味的苦差使,原因就在于此。
Comment is often made about activities which are relatively easy and satisfying,
人们经常对一些比较容易而又令人满意的活动,
like arranging flowers;
如插花,加以评论;
but not about jobs which are hard dirty,
但对又苦又脏的工作却不予置评,
like scrubbing floors.
像擦地板之类。
Shakespeare said,
莎士比亚说过:
"Our praises are our wages."
“对我们的称赞就是给予我们的报酬。”
Since so often praise is the only wage a housewife receives,
既然在很多情况下,称赞是家庭主妇的唯一报酬,
surely she of all people should get her measure.
那么她尤其应该得到一份赞扬。
Mothers know instinctively that for children an ounce of praise is worth a pound of scolding.
母亲们本能地知道,对孩子们说来,一句赞扬抵得上十句责骂。
Still,
然而,
we're not always as perceptive as we might be about applying the rule.
对于运用这一规律,我们的感觉并非一直都很敏锐。
One day I was criticizing my children for squabbling.
有一天,我因孩子们在争吵而批评他们:
"Can you never play peacefully?" I shouted.
“你们就永远不能安安静静地玩耍吗?”我大声说道。
Susanna looked at me quizzically.
苏珊娜疑惑地看着我。
"Of course we can," she said.
“我们当然能,”她说。
"But you don't notice us when we do."
“可是在我们安安静静玩耍时,你却不注意我们。”
Teachers agree about the value of praise.
对赞扬的重要性教师们的意见一致的。
One teacher writes
有一位教师写道,
that instead of drowning students' compositions in critical red ink,
如果教师不用挑剔的红墨水把学生们的作文改得一塌糊涂。
the teacher will get far more constructive results by finding one or two things which have been done better than last time,
而是找出一两处比上一次做得好的地方,他就会得到更富有建设性的结果,
and commenting favorably on them.
并给予好评。
"I believe that a student knows when he has handed in something above his usual standard,"
“我相信,当学生交上一篇超过他平时水平的作文时,他自己心中是有数的,”
writes the teacher,
这位教师写道。
"and that he waits hungrily for a brief comment in the margin to show him that the teacher is aware of it, too."
“因此,他如饥似渴地等待着教师在页边上空白处写一段简短的评语从而向他表明教师也意识到了他的进步。”
Behavioral scientists have done countless experiments to prove that any human being tends to repeat an act which has been immediately followed by a pleasant result.
行为科学家已经做过无数试验,证明任何人都往往会重复一个动作,立即产生出愉快的结果。
In one such experiment,
在一次这样的试验中,
a number of school children were divided into three groups and given arithmetic tests daily for five days.
若干学生被分成三组,连续五天每天都对他们进行算术测验。
One group was consistently praised for its previous performance;
第一组自始至终都受到表扬,
another group was criticized;
因上次测验的成绩;
the third was ignored.
另一组受到批评;
Not surprisingly,
而第三组则无人理睬。
Those who were praised improved dramatically.
毫不令人感到意外的是,
Those who were criticized improved also.
那些受到表扬的学生进步显著。
but not so much .
那些受到批评的学生也有进步,
And the scores of the children who were ignored hardly improved at all.
而那些无人理睬的学生,他们的分数却几乎没有什么提高。
Interestingly the brightest children were helped just as much by criticism as by praise,
有趣的是,最聪明的孩子从批评中得到的帮助跟从表扬中得到的帮助一样多。
but the less able children reacted badly to criticism,
但能力较低的孩子却对批评反应很差,
needed praise the most.
他们最需要表扬。
Yet the latter are the very youngsters who, in most schools, fail to get the pat on the back.
然而后者恰恰是在大多数学校中得为到赞许鼓励的孩子。
To give praise costs the giver nothing but a moment's thought and a moment's effort perhaps a quick phone call to pass on a compliment,
给予赞扬只需要给予付出者片刻的思索和片刻的努力??或者是很快地打个电话传递一句赞美的话,
or five minutes spent writing an appreciative letter.
或者是花五分钟的时间写一封感谢信。
It is such a small investment and yet consider the results it may produce.
投入的时间和精力可谓少矣??然而考虑一下它可能产生的效果吧。
"I can live for two months on a good compliment,"
“只凭一句赞美的话我就可以活上两个月。”
said Mark Twain.
马克?吐温说过。
So ,
所以,
let's be alert to the small excellences around us and comment on them.
让我们随时注意周围各种小小的优点并加以评论吧。
We will not only bring joy into other people's lives,
我们将不仅给别人的生活带来欢乐。
but also,
而且
very often,
并常常会
added happiness into our own.
给我们自己的生活带来更多的乐趣。
New Words
单词
Profit n.
得益于
Exhaust vt.
使筋疲力尽
Waitress n.
女服务生
Awry a.
歪;斜
Apron n.
围裙
Stain vt.
玷污
Load vt.
装满
Tray n.
托盘
Weary a.
厌倦的,厌烦的
Discourage vt.
使泄气,使灰心
Ice-cream n.
冰淇淋
Dozen n.
(一)打
Quit v.
离(职),不干
Sunlight n.
日光,阳光,日照
Human a.
人的,人类的,人性的,有同情心的
Apply vt.
运用,实施
Application n.
适用,应用,申请,请求
Somehow ad.
不知怎么地;以某种方式
Reluctant a.
不情愿的;勉强的
Sunshine n.
阳光
Linguist n.
通晓数国语言的人;语言学家
Salesman n.
推销员
Earn vt.
挣得,赢得
Chary a.
谨慎小心的
Compliment n. & Compliment vt.
赞美(话) 赞美
Gracefully ad.
大大方方地;优美地
Graceful a.
优美的
Embarrass vt.
使尴尬
Defensive a.
防御的
Surprisingly ad.
令人惊讶的
Pat n. & Pat v.
轻拍
Indirectly ad.
间接地
Indirect a.
间接的,迂回的
Spiteful a.
恶意的
Convey vt.
转达,传达,搬运,表达
Relay vt.
传送;转达
Flatter vt.
过奖;谄媚;奉承
Comment n. & Comment vi.
评论 评论
rewarding a.
得(做)的;报答的
Reward vt.
酬劳,奖赏
Generally ad.
通常,一般地
Artist n.
画家;艺术家
glorious a.
辉煌的
Laundry n.
洗衣店
Appreciate vt.
欣赏,鉴赏;感谢,感激
Routine a.
常规的,例行的
Gas-station n.
加油站
Attendant n.
服务人员
Tidy a.
整洁的,整齐的
Housework n.
家务劳动
Dreary a.
沉闷乏味的
Grind n.
苦差使
Scrub vt.
擦洗
Wage n.
工资,报酬
Measure n.
份儿
Instinctively ad.
本能地
Scold vt.
申斥,怒骂
Perceptive a.
感觉灵敏的
Criticize vt.
批评
Squabble vi.
争吵,口角
peacefully ad.
安静地
Peaceful a.
和平的,平静的
Quizzically ad.
嘲弄地;疑惑地
Drown vt.
淹没;使(某人)淹死
Critical a.
挑剔的,苛求的
1037 ructiv
 

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