Unit Eight
第八课
Text
课文
Ever thought about cheating on a test ?
曾经在一场考试上想过作弊吗?
Of course not But some students are not quite so honest......
当然没有,但是有些学生并不是如此诚实。
HONESTY: IS IT GONING OUT OF STYLE ?
诚实:难道它正在变得不合时宜?
Stacia Robbins
斯泰茜亚?罗宾斯
According to a recent poll,
根据最近的一次民意测验,
61 percent of American high school students have admitted to cheating on exams at least once.
61%的美国中学生承认曾在考试中至少作过一次弊。
It can be argued such a response may not mean much .
人们可以争论说,这样一种回答也许没有多大意义。
After all ,
毕竟,
most students have been faced with the temptation to peek at a neighbor's test paper.
大多数学生都曾受到过偷看邻座考卷的诱惑。
And students can be hard on themselves in judging such behavior.
而学生们在评论这类行为时有时对自己过于苛求。
However,
不过,
there are other indications that high school cheating may be on the rise .
还有别的一些迹象也表明,中学时的作弊现象可能是在上升。
More and more states are requiring students to pass competency tests
越来越多的州要求学生通过测试
in order to receive their high school diplomas.
以取得中学毕业文凭。
And many educators fear that an increase in the use of state exams
很多教育学家担心,更多地利用州级考试
will lead to a corresponding rise in cheating.
将会导致作弊的相应增加。
A case in point is students in New York State who faced criminal misdemeanor charges for possessing and selling advance copies of state Regents examinations.
一个明显的例子就是纽约州的一些学生,他们因拥有并出售州教育董事会的考卷样本而受到刑事犯罪指控。
Cheating is now considered to be a major problem in colleges and universities.
现在作弊也被看作是大学的一大问题了。
Several professors say they're dropped the traditional term paper requirement because many students buy prewritten term papers,
一些教授说他们已经放弃了传统的学期论文这一要求,因为很多学生买来预先写好的各种学期论文,
and they can't track down all the cheaters anymore.
教授们再也查不出作弊者了。
Colleges and universities across the nation have decided to do more than talk about the rise in student cheating.
全国各地的大学已决定采取措施,而不是一味谈论学生作弊的上升。
For instance,
例如,
the Department of Psychology at the University of Maryland launched a campaign to stop one form of cheating.
马里兰大学心理系就开展了一场制止某种作弊形式的运动。
As 409 students filed out of their exam,
当409名学生考完后鱼贯离开教室时,
they found all but one exit blocked.
他们发现除了一个出口外,所的有出口都堵住了。
Proctors asked each student to produce an ID card with an attached photo.
监考人员要求每个学生出示帖有照片的身分证。
Students who said they'd left theirs in the dorm or at home had a mug shot taken.
那些说把身分证留在宿舍或家中的学生都拍了面部照。
The purpose of the campaign was to catch "ringers,"
这一运动的目的是捉拿“冒名顶替者”,
students who take tests for other students.
即帮别人代考的学生。
The majority of students at the University of Maryland applauded the campaign.
马里兰大学的大多数学生都鼓掌欢迎这一运动。
The campus newspaper editorial said ,
校刊社论说:
"Like police arresting speeders,
“就像警察逮捕违法超速驾驶者一样,
the intent is not to catch everyone but rather to catch enough to spread the word."
这一运动的目的并不是要捉拿所有的人,而是抓住足够的作弊者以便把信息传开去。”
We frequently hear about " the good old days ,"
我们经常听人谈起“美好的往日”,
when Americans were better , happier, and more honest.
说是那里的美国人比现在好,比现在幸福,也比现在诚实。
But were they more honest ?
但他们真的更诚实吗?
Maybe yes,
也许他们确实更诚实,
a long time ago when life was very different from what it is today.
在很久以前,因为那时的生活跟今天的生活大不相同。
School children used to know the story of how Abraham Lincoln walked five miles to return a penny he'd overcharged a customer.
中、小学学生过去都知道亚伯拉罕?林肯步行五英里把多收的一分钱不给顾客的故事。
It's the kind of story we think of as myth .
我们已经把这类故事看成了神话。
But in the case of Lincoln ,
但就林肯来说,
the story is true … unlike the story of George Washington and the cherry tree.
这故事却是真实的……而不像乔治?华盛顿和樱桃树的故事那样是杜撰的。
Washington 's first biographer invented the tale of little George saying to his father,
华盛顿的第一位作者虚构了小乔治对父亲说
" I cannot tell a lie.
“我不能说慌。
I did it with my ax."
我用斧子砍倒了樱桃树”的故事。
What is important in both stories ,
在两个故事中都很重要的一点是,
however,
然而,
is that honesty was seen as an important part of the American character.
诚实过去一向被看作是美国性格中的一个重要组成部分。
And these are just two stories out of many.
而且这仅仅是许许多多故事中的两个故事。
Students in the last century usually didn't read " fun" stories.
上个世纪的学生一般都不读“娱乐性的”故事。
They read stories that taught moral values.
他们读的都是些传授道德标准的故事。
Such stories pointed out quite clearly that children who lied,
这类故事非常明确地提出孩子,说慌、
cheated,
骗人、
or stole came to bad ends.
偷东西的没有好下场。
Parents may have further reinforced those values.
做父母的很可能进一步加强了这些道德标准。
It 's difficult to know.
是不是真的如此很难知道了。
We do know that children didn't hear their parents talk of cheating the government on income taxes ─there weren't any.
但我们的确知道,过去的孩子听不到父母谈论在所得税上欺骗政论的事??那时候还没有所得税。
A clue as to why Americans may have been more honest in the past lies in the Abe Lincoln story.
林肯的故事中提供了一个线索,说明为什么过去的美国人也许是比较诚实。
Lincoln knew his customer.
这就是林肯认识他的顾客。
They both lived in a small town.
他们都住在同一个小镇上。
Would a check-out person at a large supermarket return money to a customer ?
一家大的超级市场的结帐员会把多收的钱还给顾客吗?
It's less likely .
可能性较小。
On the other hand ,
反之,
would overnight guests at an inn run by a husband and wife ,
在一家夫妻经营的小旅馆小夜的客人
steal towels ?
会偷毛巾吗?
It 's less likely.
可能性也不大。
Perhaps this tells us that people need to know one another to be at their honest best .
也许这就告诉我们,人们需要相互了解才能达到最诚实的境界。
The vast majority of Americans still believe that honesty is an important part of the American character.
绝大多数美国人仍然认为诚实是美国人性格的一个重要组成部分。
For that reason,
因此,
there are numerous watch-dog committees at all levels of society.
在社会各级都有许多监督委员会。
Although signs of dishonesty in school ,
虽然学校,
business ,
商界
and government seem much more numerous in recent years than in the past ,
和政府中的作弊和欺诈行为近年似乎比过去多了许多,
could it be that we are getting better at revealing such dishonesty ?
但这会不会是由于我们越来越善于揭露这类不诚实行为的缘故呢?
There is some evidence that dishonesty may ebb and flow.
有某些证据表明,欺诈行为可消可长,有起有伏。
When times are hard,
当时世艰难时,
incidents of theft and cheating usually go up.
偷窃和欺骗事件通常便会增多。
And when times get better such incidents tend to go down.
当形势好转时,这类事件往往就会减少。
Cheating in school also tends to ebb and flow.
学校中的作弊现象也往往有涨有落。
But it doesn't seem linked to the economy.
但它似乎跟经济没有什么联系。
Many educators feel that as students gain confidence in themselves and their abilities,
许多教育学家认为,当学生对自己和自己的能力有了信心以后,
they are less likely to cheat.
他们就在于不再可能作弊了。
Surprisingly ,
令人惊奇的是,
some efforts to prevent cheating may actually encourage cheating ─a person may feel "they don't trust me anyway ,"
某些防止作弊的努力可能反而促使学生作弊??一个人可能会感到“他们反正不信任我”,
and be tempted to "beat the system."
于是便很想“击败这个制度。”
Distrust can be contagious .
不信任可以有传染性。
But , so can trust !
但是,信任也可以有传染性。
New Words
单词
Honesty n.
诚实
Style n.
时髦
Poll n.
民意测验
Admit v.
承认,供认
Admission n.
供认,允许进入
Temptation n.
引诱,诱惑
Peek vi.
偷看
Behavio(u)r n.
行为
Behave v.
行为表现
Indication n.
迹象
Competency n.
能力;胜任
Diploma n.
文凭
Corresponding a.
相应的
Criminal a.
犯罪的,
Misdemeano(u)r n.
轻罪
Charge n.
指控
Possess vt.
占有,拥有
Advance a.
预先的
Regent n.
(学校董事会的)董事
Drop vt.
放弃;革除
Traditional a.
传统的
Tradition n.
传统,惯例
Requirement n.
要求;必要条件
Prewritten a.
有预兆的。
Psychology n.
心理学
Psychological a.
心理(上)的
Launch vt.
发起;发动
Campaign n.
运动
File vi.
排成纵队行进
Exit n.
出口(处)
Proctor n.
监考人
ID card n.
身体证
Dorm n.
宿舍
Mug n.
杯子
Shot n.
开枪,射击
Mug shot n.
面部照片
Ringer n.
冒名顶替者
Applaud vt.
拍手称赞
Campus n.
大学;校园
Editorial n.
社论
Arrest vt.
逮捕
Speeder n.
违法超速驾驶者
Intent n.
意图,目的
Frequently ad.
频繁地
Frequent a.
频繁的
Overcharge vt.
对……要价太高
Customer n.
顾客
Myth n.
神话
Unlike prep.
不象……,和……不同
Cherry n.
樱桃
Biographer n.
传记作家
Ax(e) n.
斧子
Character n.
性格,品质
Moral a.
道德的
Reinforce vt.
加强
Tax n.
税,税款
Clue n.
线索
Check-out n.
结帐处
Supermarket n.
超级市场
Overnight a.
住一夜的;一整夜的
Inn n.
小旅馆,客栈
Towel n.
毛巾
Vast a.
巨大的
Numerous a.
众多的,许多的
Watch-dog a.
起监督作用的
Dishonesty n.
不诚实,不老实
Reveal vt.
揭露
Evidence n.
证据
Ebb vi.
落潮;低落,衰退
Flow vi.
(潮)涨;上升;流
Incident n.
事件
Theft n.
偷,行窃
Tend vi.
易于,往往会
Link vt.
连接;联系
Economy n.
经济
Anyway ad.
究竟;无论如何
Tempt vt.
引诱
System n.
体制;制度
Systematic a.
系统的,体系的
Distrust n.
不信任,怀疑
Contagious a.
传染的
Phrases & Expressions
习惯短语
Out of style
过时的,不再流行的
According to
按照,根据
(be) faced with
面对
be hard on
对……过分严厉
on the rise
在增长;在加剧
a case in point
恰当的例子
all but
除了……都
(be) different from
与……不同
think of … as
把……认为是
in the case of
就……来说,至于
come to
变成(某种状态)
lie in
在于
on the other hand
另一方面,反过来说
at one's best
处于最佳状态
go up
上升;增加
go down
下降;减少
Proper Names
全称
Stacia Robbins
斯泰茜娅?罗宾斯
Maryland
马里兰(美国州名)
Abe
艾贝(Abraham的昵称)
 

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