Unit Two
第二单元
Text
课文
Is there anything we can learn from deer?
我们能从鹿中学到一些东西吗?
During the "energy crisis " of 1973-1974 the writer of this essay was living in northern Minnesota
在1973-1974年能量危机时期,这篇文章的作者正生活在明尼苏达州的北部,
and was able to observe how deer survive when winter arrives.
在那里他能观察当冬天来临时鹿是怎样生存下去的。
The lessons he learns about the way deer conserve energy turn out applicable to our everyday life.
他从鹿保存能量的方法中,得知其方法对我们的日常生活也是可行的。
DEER AND THE ENERGY CYCLE
鹿和能量循环
Some persons say that love makes the world go round.
有些人说,爱情驱使世界运转;
Others of a less romantic and more practical turn of mind say that it isn't love;
另一些并不那么罗曼蒂克而更为注重实际的人则说,不是爱情,
it's money.
而是金钱。
But the truth is that it is energy that makes the world go round.
但真实情况是,能量驱使世界运转。
Energy is the currency of the ecological system and life becomes possible only when food is converted into energy,
能量是生态系统的货币,只有当食物转变为能量,
which in turn is used to seek more food to grow,
能量再用来获取更多的食物以供生长,、
to reproduce and to survive.
繁殖和生存时,生命才成为可能。
On this cycle all life depends.
所有生命都维系在这一循环上。
It is fairly well known that wild animals survive from year to year by eating as much as they can during times of plenty,
众所周知,野生动物得以年复一年地生存下去,主要依靠在夏秋生长旺季尽量少吃,
the summer and fall,
夏秋两季,
storing the excess,
储存额外的,
usually in the form of fat,
通常将多余的部分以脂肪的形式储存起来,
and then using these reserves of fat to survive during the hard times in winter when food is scarce.
然后到了冬天食物稀少的艰难时期,就用这些储备的脂肪来维持生命。
But, it is probably less well known that even with their stored fat,
然而,很可能鲜为人知的是,即使有储备的脂肪,
wild animals spend less energy to live in winter than in summer .
野生动物在冬天消耗的能量比夏天要少。
A good case in point is the white-tailed deer,
一个很好的例证是白尾鹿,
Like most wildlife, deer reproduce, grow,
与大多数野生动物一样,鹿繁殖、生长,
and store fat in the summer and fall when there is plenty of nutritious food available.
鹿在营养丰富、食物充足的夏秋两季储备脂肪。
A physically mature female deer in good condition who has conceived in November and given birth to two fawns during the end of May or first part of June,
一只成熟健壮的线鹿,在11月份怀胎,5月底或6月初生下两只幼鹿,
must search for food for the necessary energy not only to meet her body's needs but also to produce milk for her fawns.
这时,它必须寻找食物以获得必要的能量,这不仅是为了满足自身的需要,而且也是为了给幼鹿生产乳汁。
The best milk production occurs at the same time that new plant growth is available.
产乳的最佳期也正是植物生长茂盛之时。
This is good timing,
这个时机选择得很好,
because milk production is an energy consuming process-it requires a lot of food.
因为乳汁生产是一个消耗能量的过程??它需要大量的食物,
The cost can not be met unless the region has ample food resources.
除非该地区有丰富的食物资源,否则无法满足这种消耗。
As the summer progresses and the fawns grow,
夏季一天天过去,幼鹿日渐生长,
they become less dependent on their mother's milk and more dependent on growing plants as food sources.
它们变得较少依赖母鹿的乳汁,而更加依靠生长中的植物为其食物来源。
The adult males spend the summer growing antlers and getting fat .
雄性成鹿在夏天生长鹿角并养肥身体。
Both males and females continue to eat high quality food in the fall in order to deposit body fat for the winter.
在秋天,雄鹿和雌鹿都继续进食高质量食物,储存体内脂肪,以备过冬。
In the case of does and fawns,
至于雌鹿和幼鹿,
a great deal of energy is expended either in milk production or in growing,
由于大量的能量用于产奶或生长,
and fat is not accumulated as quickly as it is in full grown males.
脂肪的积累速度不如完全成熟的雄鹿快。
Fat reserves are like bank accounts to be drawn on in the winter when food supplies are limited and sometimes difficult to reach because of deep snow.
脂肪储备如同银行里的存款,供冬天食物来源不足时和有时由于雪深难以获得时,支取使用。
As fall turns into winter,
随着秋去冬来,
other changes take place.
还会发生其它变化,
Fawns lose their spotted coat.
幼鹿失去皮毛上的斑纹。
Hair on all the deer becomes darker and thicker.
所有鹿身上的毛长厚,颜色变深。
The change in the hair coats is usually complete by September and maximum hair depths are reached by November or December when the weather becomes cold.
毛皮的变化通常持续到9月。到11月或者12月天气变冷时,毛长得最厚。
But in addition,
此外,
nature provides a further safeguard to help deer survive the winter-
大自然还为鹿提供一步的保护以帮助它们度过冬天
an internal physiological response which lowers their metabolism,
??体内生理机能作相应调节,放慢新陈代谢,
or rate of bodily functioning,
亦即生理活动的速度,
and hence slows down their expenditure of energy.
从而降低能量的消耗。
The deer become somewhat slow and drowsy.
鹿变得有点动作迟缓、嗜睡。
The heart rate drops.
它们的心率减慢。
Animals that hibernate practice energy conservation to a greater extreme than deer do.
冬眠的动物保存能量的习性胜过鹿。
Although deer don't hibernate,
虽然鹿不冬眠,
they do the same thing with their seasonal rhythms in metabolism.
但它们随季节的变化而改变新陈代谢节奏的习性则是一样的。
Deer spend more energy and store fat in the summer and fall when food is abundant,
夏秋间,食物充裕的时候,鹿消耗较多的能量并储存脂肪。
and spend less energy and use stored fat in the winter when food is less available.
在冬天食物匮乏时,它们则消耗较少的能量并使用储存的脂肪。
When the "energy crisis" first came in 1973-1974,
1973年~1974年间,第一次出现“能源危机”的时候,
I was living with my family in a cabin on the edge of an area where deer spend the winter in northern Minnesota,
我正与家人住在明尼苏达州北部一处鹿过冬地方的边缘地带。我们住在一个小屋里,
observing the deer as their behavior changed from more activity in summer and fall to less as winter progressed,
观察鹿的生活习性,观察它们是如何随着冬季来临从夏秋的活动频繁状态而变得少动的,
followed by an increase again in the spring as the snow melted.
而到春暖雪融时,他们的活动又是如何增多起来的。
It was interesting and rather amusing to listen to the advice given on the radio:
当时广播电台告诫我们,
"Drive only when necessary," we were told.
“没有必要不开车”,
"Put on more clothes to stay warm,
多穿衣服好保暖,
and turn the thermostat on your furnace down."
并请调低锅炉上的恒温器”。
Meanwhile we watched the deer reduce their activity,
因为与此现时,我们一直注视着鹿减少活动,
grow a winter coat of hair,
长出越冬的厚毛。
and reduce their metabolism as they have for thousands of years.
并减缓新陈代谢。几千年来,它们一贯如此。
It is biologically reasonable for deer to reduce their cost of living to increase their chances of surviving in winter.
鹿减少生存所需的能耗以增加越冬生存的机会,从生物学角度来看是合情全理的。
Not every winter is critical for deer of course.
当然,对鹿来讲,并非每个冬天都处于危难之中。
If the winter has light snow,
如果冬天雪下得少,
survival and productivity next spring will be high.
存活率和次年春天的繁殖力就高。
But if deep snows come and the weather remains cold for several weeks,
但如果雪积得深,天气连续数周下寒冷,
then the deer must spend more energy to move about ,
鹿活动起来就得花费较多的能量,
food will be harder to find ,
觅食会更难,
and they must then depend more on their fat reserves to pull them through .
这时它们就得更多地依赖其脂肪储备度过寒冬。
If such conditions go on for too long some will die,
如果这种情况持续太久,有些鹿就要死亡,
and only the largest and strongest are likely to survive.
只有体型最大最壮的,才有可能存活。
That is a fundamental rule of life for wild,
这是一条根本的生存规律。
free wandering animals such as deer.
对于像鹿这样四处奔走的野生动物来说,
Yes, life -and death, too-
的确,生命??还有死亡
is a cycle that goes round and round,
??周而复始,循环不已
and when animals die their bodies become food for other life forms to use by converting them into energy.
当动物死亡的时候,它们的尸体转化为能量,就成食物,供其它生命形式使用。
And the cycle continues.
如此循环,永不止息。
New Words
新单词
deer n.
鹿
romantic a.
浪漫的,幻想的
turn n.
(天生)倾向
currency n.
通货,货币
ecological a.
生态的
ecology n.
生态学
convert vt.
使转变;使改变信仰(等)
excess n.
过量,过度
reserve n.
储备(物)
scarce a.
缺乏的
wildlife n.
野生动植物
nutritious a.
有营养的
mature a.
成熟的;成年的
female a.
女(性)的;雌的
conceive vt.
怀(胎);构思
fawn n.
未满一岁的小鹿
timing n.
时机的选择
consume vt.
消耗;消费
region n.
地区;(身体的)部位
ample a.
充裕的
resource n.
资源
dependent a.
依赖的
male a.&n.
男(性)的;雄的
antler n.
鹿角,茸角
deposit vt.
存放;使沉积
doe n.
雌鹿
expend vt.
花费;耗尽
accumulate v.
积累;积聚
account n.
帐户;存款
spotted a.
有斑点的
depth n.
深;深度,厚度
safeguard n.
预防措施
internal a.
内部的;体内的
physiological a.
生理的;生理学的
metabolism n.
新陈代谢
hence ad.
因此,所以
expenditure n.
花费;用光;支出额,费用
somewhat ad.
有点,稍微
drowsy a.
困倦的;催眠的
hibernate vi.
冬眠
extreme n.
极端
seasonal a.
季节性的
rhythm n.
节奏
abundant a.
充足的;丰富的
cabin n.
小木屋;茅舍
melt v.
(使)融化;(使)熔化
amusing a.
逗人笑的;引起乐趣的
amuse vt.
使发笑,使愉快
thermostat n.
恒温器
biologically ad.
生物学上
biological a.
生物学的
biology n.
生物学
survival n.
幸存
productivity n.
生产力;生产率;多产
fundamental a.
基本的,最重要的
Phrases & Expressions
短语
go round
运转
in the form of
以…形式
in point
适用的;相关的
in (good ) condition
身体健康
give birth (to )
生(孩子),产(仔);产生,引起
draw on
利用;动用
slow down
(使)慢下来;(使)放松
turn down
减弱;关小,调低
move about
到处走动
pull through
使渡过危险或危机
Proper Name
名称
Minnesota
明尼苏达(美国州名)
 

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