Unit Six
第六单元
Text
课文
"Don't ever mark in a book!"
不要在书上作标记!
Thousands of teachers,
成千上万的老师,
librarians and parents have so advised.
图书管理员和父母亲都如此建议。
But Mortimer Adler disagrees.
但是Mortimer Adler 不同意。
He thinks so long as you own the book and needn't preserve its physical appearance,
他认为只要你拥有这本书,就不有必要去保护它的表面现象。
marking it properly will grant you the ownership of the book in the true sense of the word and make it a part of yourself.
准确地作记号将认为你和书的雇主关系,真正地感觉那些单词是你的一部分。
HOW TO MARK A BOOK
怎样在书上做记号
You know you have to read "between the lines" to get the most out of anything.
你知道读书要“深入字里行间”,以求最充分的理解。
I want to persuade you to do something equally important in the course of your reading.
我劝你在读书过程中做一件同样重要的事情。
I want to persuade you to "write between the lines." Unless you do,
我想劝你“在字里行间写字。”不这样做,
you are not likely to do the most efficient kind of reading.
你的读书就不可能是最有效的。
You shouldn't mark up a book which isn't yours.
你不应该在不是你自己的书上做记号。
Librarians (or your friends) who lend you books expect you to keep them clean,
借给你书的图书管理员(或你的朋友)希望你保持书的整洁,
and you should.
再说你也应该这样做。
If you decide that I am right about the usefulness of marking books,
如果你认为我说的书上做记号颇有益处这番话是对的话,
you will have to buy them .
你就得自己买书。
There are two ways in which one can own a book.
一个人拥有书的方法有两种,
The first is the property right you establish by paying for it,
第一种是花钱取得财产所有权,
just as you pay for clothes and furniture.
就像你花钱买衣服和家具一样。
But this act of purchase is only the prelude to possession.
但花钱买书只是占有它的前奏。
Full ownership comes only when you have made it a part of yourself,
只有在你将它化为你自己的一部分之后,你才完全占有了它。
and the best way to make yourself a part of it is by writing in it.
而把你自己变以书的一部分的最好方法就是在书中写字。
An illustration may make the point clear.
打个比方也许可以把这一点说清楚。
You buy a beefsteak and transfer it from the butcher's icebox to your own.
你买下一块牛排,把它从肉铺的冰箱里转移到你的冰箱中。
But you do not own the beefsteak in the most important sense until you consume it and get it into your bloodstream.
但从最重要的意义上来说,你还没有占有它,除非你吃下它并将它吸收进你的血液中。
I am arguing that books, too,
我的论点是,
must be absorbed in your bloodstream to do you any good.
书的营养也只有在被吸收进你的血液中时,才能对你有所裨益。
There are three kinds of book owners.
书籍拥有者可以分为三种。
The first has all the standard sets and best-sellers-unread,untouched.
第一种人藏有全部标准的成套书和畅销书??既没有读过,也没有碰过。
(This individual owns wood-pulp and ink, not books.)
(这位占有的只是纸浆和油墨,而不是书。)
The second has a great many books-
第二种人藏书很多??
a few of them read through,
有几本从头至尾读过,
most of them dipped into,
大部分浅尝辄止,
but all of them as clean and shiny as the day they were bought.
但全部跟新买时一样整洁光亮。
(This person would probably like to make books his own,
(此君很可能想使书真的为其所有,
but is restrained by a false respect for their physical appearance.)
但因错误地过分关注书籍的外观而裹足不前。)
The third has a few books or many -
第三种人藏书或多或少??
every one of them dog-eared and dilapidated,
因不断使用,每本书都弄成书角卷起,
shaken and loosened by continual use,
破旧不堪,装订破损,书页松散,
marked and scribbled in from front to back.
全书从扉页至末页画满了记号,涂满了字句。
(This man owns books.)
(此人是书的真正拥有者。)
Is it false respect, you may ask,
你或许会问,
to preserve intact a beautifully printed book,
将一本印刷精美、装帧雅致的书保存完好,
an elegantly bound edition?
难道也是不恰当的吗?
Of course not.
当然不是。
I'd no more scribble all over a first edition of "Paradise Lost" than I'd give my baby a set of crayons and an original Rembrandt!
我决不会在一本初版的《失乐园》上乱涂乱写,就像我不会把一幅伦勃朗的原作连同一盒蜡笔交给我的婴孩任意涂抹一样!
I wouldn't mark up a painting or a statue.
我决不会在一幅油画或一尊塑像上画记号。
Its soul, so to speak,
可以说,它们的灵魂,
is inseparable from its body.
与其躯体是不可分开的。
And the beauty of a rare edition or of a richly manufactured volume is like that of a painting or a statue.
一部珍本或一本装帧华美的书的美,同一幅油画或一尊塑像的美是一样的。
If your respect for magnificent binding or printing gets in the way,
如果你对华美的装帧或印刷的尊重妨碍你读书,
but yourself a cheap edition and pay your respects to the author.
那就买一种便宜的版本,将你的敬意献给作者。
Why is marking up a book indispensable to reading?
为什么在书上做记号对阅读是必不可少的呢?
First, it keeps you awake.
首先,它会使你保持清醒。
(And I don't mean merely conscious; I mean wide awake.)
(我不是仅仅指它让你神志清醒;我的意思是它能使你全神贯注。)
In the second place, reading,
其次,如果阅读,
if it is active, is thinking,
是一种能动的行为,那么它就是思考,
and thinking tends to express itself in words,
而思考常常须借助,语言来表达,
spoken or written.
口头的或书面的。
The marked book is usually the thought-through book.
作了记号的书,通常是读者认真思考过的书。
Finally, writing helps you remember the thoughts you had,
最后,写可以帮助你记住你阅读时的思想,
or the thoughts the author expressed.
或作者所表达的思想。
Let me develop these three points.
让我进一步就这三点谈一谈。
If reading is to accomplish anything more than passing time,
如果阅读的目的不仅仅是消磨时间,
it must be active.
那就应该是一种积极的思维活动。
You can't let your eyes glide across the lines of a book and come up with an understanding of what you have read.
仅仅让你的眼睛在书上扫视一遍,你就不可能对所读的内容有所理解。
Now an ordinary piece of light fiction, like, say,
当然,一部普通的消遣小说,
"Gone with the Wind,"
譬如《飘》,
doesn't require the most active kind of reading.
并不需要那种最积极的思维式的阅读。
The books you read for pleasure can be read in a state of relaxation,
作为消遣的书,可以轻松地读,
and nothing is lost.
而不会有所失。
But a great book, rich in ideas and beauty,
但一本思想丰富、文字华美,
a book that raises and tries to answer great fundamental questions,
试图提出带根本性的重大问题并加以回答的伟大著作,
demands the most active reading of which you are capable.
则要求你尽可能地进行最积极的阅读。
You don't absorb the ideas of John Dewey the way you absorb the crooning of Mr. Vallee.
你不能像欣赏瓦利先生的低声吟唱那样,学到约翰!杜威的思想。
You have to reach for them.
你得花费气力方可获得。
That you cannot do while you're asleep.
漫不经心,是做不到这一点的。
If, when you've finished reading a book,
如果当你读完一本书的时候,
the pages are filled with your notes,
书页上写满了你的批注,
you know that you read actively.
你就知道你的阅读是积极的了。
The most famous active reader of great books I know is President Hutchins,
我所知道的最有名的采用积极方式阅读伟大著作的人,是校长哈钦斯,
of the University of Chicago.
芝加哥大学的。
He also has the hardest schedule of business activities of any man I know.
他也是我所知道的公务最繁忙的人。
He invariably reads with a pencil, and sometimes,
他读书时总是拿着铅笔。有时,
when he picks up a book and pencil in the evening, he finds himself,
当他在晚上拿起书和铅笔的时候,
instead of making intelligent notes,
发觉自己不是在作有意义的笔记,
drawing what he calls "caviar factories" on the margins.
而是在页边空白处画些称之为“鱼子酱工厂”和东西,
When that happens,
一出现这种情况,
he puts the book down.
他就放下书本。
He knows he's too tired to read,
他知道自己太累,读不下去了,
and he's just wasting time.
完全是在浪费时间。
But, you may ask,
但是,你或许会问,
why is writing necessary?
写有何必要呢?
Well, the physical act of writing, with your own hand,
要知道,亲手书写的动作
brings words and sentences more sharply before your mind and preserves them bitter in your memory.
会使词语和句子更加鲜明地呈现在你的脑海里,更好地储存在你的记忆中。
To set down your reaction to important words and sentences you have read,
将你对所读的重要词语和句子的感受写下来,
and the questions they have raised in your mind,
将它们在你脑子里引起的问题记下来,
is to preserve those reactions and sharpen those questions.
就可以将这些感受长久保存下来,并可以使那些问题更加明确起来。
You can pick up the book the following week or year,
当你下周或来年,重新拿起这本书的时候,
and there are all your points of agreement,
你的各种观点,
disagreement, doubt and inquiry.
同意的、反对的、怀疑的、质询的,统统一目了然。
It's like resuming an interrupted conversation with the advantage of being able to pick up where you left off.
这如同谈话一度被打断,现在又可以在上次停下的地方接着谈下去了。
And that is exactly what reading a book should be:
读书就该这么个想法,
a conversation between you and the author.
你同作者应进行对话。
Presumably he knows more about the subject than you do;
很可能作者在有关的问题上比你懂得多,
naturally you'll have the proper humility as you approach him.
你接近他的时候表示适度的谦恭是很自然的。
But don't let anybody tell you that a reader is supposed to be solely on the receiving end.
但不要轻信他人,以为读者只有全盘接受的份儿。
Understanding is a two-way operation;
理解是一种双向活动。
learning doesn't consist in being an empty receptacle.
学习并不是往空的容器中装东西。
The learner has to question himself and question the teacher.
学生应当向自己也向教师提问题。
He even has to argue with the teacher,
他甚至还得与教师展开争论,
once he understands what the teacher is saying.
一旦理解了教师所讲的内容,
And marking a book is literally an expression of your differences,
而在书上作记号,实际上就是表达你赞同或不赞同,
or agreements of opinion, with the author.
作者观点的一种方式。
These are all kinds of devices for marking a book intelligently and fruitfully.
在书上作记号,有各种各样好的、行之有效的方法。
Here's the way I do it:
现将我的做法叙述如下:

  1. Underlining: of major points,

  1.在文字下面划线,
of important or forceful statements.
划出主要论点及重要的或者有力的论述。

  2. Vertical lines at the margin:

  2.有页边空白处划竖线:
to emphasize a statement already underlined.
强调已划线的论述部分。

  3. Star, asterisk, or other doo-dad at the margin:

  3.在页边空白处画五星或六星记号,或其它小符号:
to be used sparingly, to emphasize the ten or twenty most important statements in the book.
这种记号宜珍惜着用。可用来强调书中十处或二十处最重要的论述。

  4. Numbers in the margin:

  4.在页边空白处写数字:
to indicate the sequence of points the author makes in developing a single argument.
标明作者展开一个论据的各点顺序。

  5. Numbers of other pages in the margin:

  5.在页边空处写其它页的页码:
to indicate where else in the book the author made points relevant to the point marked;
标明作者在本书其它地方所写的与本论点有关的论点,
to tie up the ideas in a book, which,
也可以通过这一办法将书中虽分散各处,
though they may be separated by many pages, belong together.
但密切有关的观点联系起来。

  6. Circling of key word
 

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