Unit Two
第二单元
Beginning with the earliset pioneers,
从最早的先驱者开始,
Americans have always highly valued their freedoms, and fought hard to protect them.
美国人已经有了很贵重的自由,他们为了保护它们努力地战斗。
And yet, the author points out that there is a basic freedom which Americans are in danger of losing.
然而,作者指出有一种基本的自由美国人正处于失去它的危险中。
What is this endangered freedom?
这个将要绝种的自由是什么?
For what reasons could freedom-loving Americans possibly let this freedom slip away?
是什么原因让这些热爱自由的美国人很有可能让这个自由滑走?
And what steps can they take to protect it--their fifth freedom?
他们采用什么方法去保护他们的第五自由?
THE FIFTH FREEDOM
第五种自由
by Seymour St.John
西摩?圣约翰
More than three centuries ago a handful of pioneers crossed the ocean to Jamestown and Plymouth in search of freedoms they were unable to find in their own countries,
一小群早期拓荒者为了寻找在他们自己的祖国已不存在的自由,在三百多年前远涉重洋,来到詹姆斯敦和普列茅斯。
the freedoms we still cherish today:freedom from want, freedom from fear, freedom of speech, freedom of religion.
这自由我们今天仍然格外珍惜。它们是:脱离贫穷,消除恐惧、言论以及宗教信仰的自由。
Today the descendants of the early settlers, and those who have joined them since,
如今这些拓荒者的后代以及后来加入其行列的新老移民
are fighting to protect these freedoms at home and throughout the world.
仍然在美国本土和世界各地为这些自由而奋斗着。
And yet there is a fifth freedom--basic to those four--that we are in danger of losing:
与此同时还存在着第五种自由,也是上述四种自由之基石,我们有丢失它的危险。
the freedom to be one's best.
它是达到个人成就顶峰的自由,
St.Exupery describes a ragged, sensitive-faced arab child,
在法国作家圣?埃克休帕里的作品里,一个破衣烂衫却长得聪明伶俐的阿拉伯少年,
haunting the streets of a North African town, as a lost Moxart:he would never be trained or developed.
经常闲逛于北非某城市,被描写成一个被埋没的莫扎特,他不可能受到训练或培养。
Was he free? "No one grasped you by the shoulder while there was still time;
这个孩子有自由吗?“在还来得及的时候却得为到培养。
and nought will awaken in you the sleeping poet or musician or astronomer that possiby inhabited you from the beginning."
你也许很可能有着与生俱来的成为诗人、音乐家或天文学家的潜能,但却不可能被唤醒了。
The freedom to be one's best is the chance for the development of each person to his highest power.
完善自我的自由是一种让每个人把自己的能力发展到最高水平的机会。
How is it that we in America have begun to lose this freedom,
在美国我们为什么会开始失去这一自由呢?
and how can we regain it for our nation's youth?
如何为我国的青年人重新获得这一自由呢?
I believe it has started slipping away from us because of three misunderstandings.
它之所以开始从我们身边悄然离去,我认为是由于以下三种误解所导致的。
First, the misunderstanding of the meaning of democracy.
首先是对民主的误解。
The principal of a great Philadelphia high school is driven to cry for help in combating the notion,
在费城、一所名牌中学的校长被迫大声疾呼,号召人们反对一种观点,
that it is undemocratic to run a special program of studies for outstanding boys and girls.
即认为给尖子生吃小灶是不民主的。
Again, when a good independent school in Memphis recently closed,
再如,当孟菲斯的一所教学质量好的私立学校在不久前停办时,
some thoughtful citizens urged that it be taken over by the public school system and used for boys and girls of high ability,
一些有头脑的市民力主将其纳入公立学校系统,专门用来培养尖子人才。
that it have entrance requirements and give an advanced program of studies to superior students who were interested and able to take it.
他们主张要设入学条件并为有兴趣、有能力的学生提供高级研修课程。
The proposal was rejected because it was undemocratic!
然而这项建议竟遭反对,理由是这样做不民主!
Thus, courses are geared to the middle of the class.
据此,课程均被定位在中等难度。
The good student is unchallenged, bored.
尖子生未受到挑战,情绪低落,
The loafer receives his passing grade.
差生也能及格。
And the lack of an outstanding course for the outstanding student, the lack of a standard which a boy or girl must meet, passes for democracy.
没有为优等生开设的培优课程,没有每位男女生都必须达到的标准反而带来了民主。
The second misunderstanding concerns what makes for happiness.
其次是对幸福的误解。
The aims of our present-day culture are avowedly ease and material well-being:
我们当今文化的取向明白无误地直指安逸和物质享受,
shorter hours; a shorter week; more return for less accomplishment;
更少的日工作小时和周工作日,干得更少,拿得更多,
more softsoap excuses and fewer honest, realistic demands.
更多的滑头的借口,更少实实在在的要求。
In our schools this is reflected by the vanishing hickory stick and the emerging psychiatrist.
反映到我们的学校里,便是精神病医生取代了教鞭。
The hickory stick had its faults, and the psychiatrist has his strengths.
以前用教鞭当然有不妥的时候,如今的精神病医生也功不可没。
But the trend is clear.
但趁势是显而易见的。
Tout comprendre c'est tout pardonner(To understand everything is to excuse everything).
Tour comprend c’est pardoner(原谅了一切才理解了一切。)
Do we really believe that our softening standards bring happiness?
我们真的相信较松的标准能带来幸福吗?
Is it our sound and considered judgment that the tougher subjects of the classics and mathematics should be thrown aside,
象某些教育专家建议的,用玩娃娃取代难学的古典文学和数学。
as suggested by some educators, for doll-playing?
这难道是我们经过深思熟虑作出的判断吗?
Small wonder that Charles Malik, Lebanese delegate at the U.N., writes:
无怪乎黎巴嫩驻联合国代表查尔斯?马立克会这样写道:
"There is in the West" (in the United States)
“在西方(美国)
"a general weakening of moral fiber.
普遍存在着道德滑坡。
(Our)leadership does not seem to be adequate to the unprecedented challenges of the age."
(我们的)领导似乎无从应付史无前例的时代的挑战。”
The last misunderstanding is in the area of values.
最后是对价值观的误解。
Here are some of the most influential tenets of teacher education over the past fifty years:
这里仅举几项在过去五十年里在师范教育界最具影响的信仰,
there is no eternal truth; there is no absolute moral law; there is no God.
永恒的真理是不存在的;绝对的道德准则是不存在的;上帝是不存在的。
Yet all of history has taught us that the denial of these ultimates,
但人类全部的历史却告诉我们:否定这些基本原则,
the placement of man or state at the core of the universe,
置人或国家于宇宙之中心,
results in a paralyzing mass selfishness;
将导致使世界瘫痪的整体自私自利。
and the first signs of it are already frighteningly evident.
而这恶果却已令人恐怖地初现端倪。
Arnold Toynbee has said that all progress,
阿诺德?汤因比曾经说,一切进步,
all development come from challenge and a consequent response.
一切发展均来自挑战以及相应的反应。
Without challenge there is no response, no development, no freedom.
而没有挑战,当然也没有了反应,没有了进步,没有了自由。
So first we owe to our children the most demanding,
因此,首先我们要为我们的孩子提供最艰深,
challenging curriculum that is within their capabilities.
最具挑战性的在其力所能及的范围内的课程。
Michelangelo did not learn to paint by spending his time doodling.
米开朗基罗学画时可不是心不在焉的乱画。
Mozart was not an accomplished pianist-at the age of eight as the result of spending his days in front of a television set.
莫扎特要是整天看电视,也就不可能在八岁就成为小有名气的钢琴家。
Like Eve Curie, like Helen Keller, they responded to the challenge of their lives by a desceplined training:
正象伊芙?居里和海伦?凯勒一样,他们都是以严格的训练来面对挑战。
and they gained a new freedom.
并且赢得了新的自由。
The second opportunity we can give our boys and girls is the right to failure.
我们可以给我们的男孩女孩们的第二个机会乃是有权失败。
"Freedom is not only a privilege, it is a test," writes De Nouy.
“自由不仅仅是一种特权,而且也是一种考验,”德?纽伊写道。
What kind of a test is it, what kind of freedom where no one can fail?
一个不允许失败的考验是一种什么样的考验呢?这种自由又将是什么自由呢:
The day is past when the United States can afford to give high school diplomas to all who sit through four years of insturction,
美国能为每一位来听上四年高中课程的学生,发张高中文凭。
regardless of whether any visible results can be discerned.
但不管是否学到东西,这个时代已一去不复返了。
We live in a narrowed world where we must be alert,awake to realism;
我们生活在一个变得越来越小的世界里,我们必须知晓现实主义,并对其保持警觉;
and realism demands a standard which either must be met or result in failure.
而现实主义所要求的标准应是一种要么必须达到,要么达不到的标准。
These are hard words, but they are brutally true.
这种说法过于严酷,但也句句是实。
If we deprive our children of the right to fail we deprive them of their knowledge of the world as it is.
如果剥夺了我们的孩子失败的权力,也就是剥夺了他们认识真实世界的权力。
Finally, we can expose our children to the best values we have found.
最后,我们应让孩子们全面了解我们已经找到的最好的价值。
By relating our lives to the evidences of the ages,
通过把我们的生活与各个时代,
by judging our philosophy in the light of values that history has proven truest,
可资证明的事件联系起来,通过已经过历史证明为最真实的价值观来评判我们的人生哲学。
perhaps we shall be able to produce that "ringing message, full of content and truth, satisfying the mind,
我们也许能够提供一种充满真理、内容翔实、满足我们的思维,
appealing to the heart, firing the will, a message on which one can stake his whole life."
打劫我们心扉、燃起希望之火的,时时萦绕于耳的启示,一种受用终生的启示。
This is the message that could mean joy and strength and leadership--freedom as opposed to serfdom.
这是一个意味着快乐力量和领袖才能的启示?即自由而非奴役。
 

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