Unit Five
第五单元
As the author points out below, the success of science has less to do with a particular method than with an essential attitude of the scientist.
就像作者下面指出的一样,科学的成功很少是由于一个特别的方法,而是因为科学家的基本态度。
This attitude is essentially one of inquiry, experimentation and humility before the facts.
在事实之前,这个态度本质上是调查,实验,和谦卑。
Therefore, a good scientist is and honest one.
因此,一个好的科学家是诚实的。
True scientists do not bow to any authority but they are ever ready to modify or even abandon their ideas if adequate evidence is found contradicting them.
真正的科学家不会对任何权威弯腰的,而是当发现大量的事实和他们相矛盾时,他们不断地改变或甚至抛弃他们的思想。
Scientists, as human beings, may not be more honest than others, but in their profession, they do place a high value on honesty.
科学家们,作为人类并不比其他的人诚实,但是在他们的职业里,他们很看重诚实。
SCIENCE AND THE SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE
科学与科学态度
by Paul G. Hewitt
保罗?G?休伊特
Science is the body of knowledge about nature that represents the collective efforts,
科学是关于自然的知识主体,代表了人类集体的努力,
insights, findings, and wisdom of the human race.
洞察力,新发现和智慧。
Science is not something new but had its beginnings before recorded history when humans first discovered reoccurring relationships around them.
科学不是某种新事物,它始于有文字记载的历史前,人类首次发现其周围重复出现的事物之间的各种关系之时。
Through careful observations of these relationships,
通过对这些相互关系的仔细观察,
they began to know nature
他们开始认识自然,
and because of nature's dependability, found they could make predictions to enable some control over their surroundings.
又由于自然的可靠性,他们发现自己可以预测未来从而能够对周围环境实施某种程度上的控制。
Science made its greatest headway in the sixteenth century when people began asking unanswerable question about nature--
在十六世纪,科学取得了最大的进步。那时的人们已经开始就自然现象提出一些可以回答的问题,
when they began replacing superstition by a systematic search for order--
那时,人们已开始用对秩序的规律系统的研究来代替迷信;
when experiment in addition to logic was used to test ideas.
那时,人们除了使用逻辑外,还运用实验来验证各种观点。
Where people once tried to influence natural events with magic and supernatural forces,
过去人们曾试图用魔术和超自然的力量来左右自然现象,
they now had science to guide them.
然而现在他们用科学来作指导。
Advance was slow, however, because of the powerful opposition to scientific methods and ideas.
但是,由于对科学方法与思想强烈的反对,进步是缓慢的。
In about 1510 Copernicus suggested that the sun was stationary and that the earth revolved about the sun.
大约在1510年,哥白尼提出了太阳静止不动,地球绕太阳旋转之观点。 
He refuted the idea that the earth was the center of the universe.
他驳斥了地球是宇宙中心的观点。
After years of hesitation, he published his findings but died before his book was circulated.
经过几年的犹豫,他发表了自己研究成果,还没等到他的书广泛流传,哥白尼就逝世了。
His book was considered heretical and dangerous and was banned by the Church for 200 years.
他的书被认为是异端的、危险的,并被教会禁锢了二百年。
A century after Copernicus, the mathematician Bruno was burned at the stake--largely for supporting Copernicus,
在哥白尼之后一个世纪,数学家布鲁诺被烧死在火刑柱上?主要是因为支持哥白尼,
suggesting the sun to be a star, and suggesting that space was infinite.
认为太阳是一棵恒星,并且还认为太空是无限的。
Galileo was imprisoned for popularizing the Copernican theory and for his other contributions to scientific thought.
伽俐略因为普及哥白尼的理论以及他对科学思想的其它贡献而被关进监狱。
Yet a couple of centuries later, Copernican advocates seemed harmless.
然而,几个世纪以后,哥白尼的拥护者们似乎就没有危害了。
This happens age after age.
这种事情一个时代接一个时代都会发生。
In the early 1800s geologists met with violent condemnation because they differed with the Genesis account of creation.
在十九世纪初,地质学家们遭到强烈遣责,因为他们的观点与《创世纪》中所叙述的创世观点相左。
Later in the same century, geology was safe, but theories of evolution were condemned and the teaching of them forbidden.
可就在同一世纪稍晚些时候,地质学就安全了,但是有关进化的理论依然遭到谴责,并被禁止教授。
This most likely continues.
这种情况很可能继续下去,
"At every crossway on the road that leads to the future,
“因为在通往未来大道上的每一个十字路口,
each progressive spirit is opposed by a thousand men appointed to guard the past."
各种进步精神都会遭到上千名受命维护过去的卫道士们的反对。”
Every age has one or more groups of intellectual rebels who are persecuted,
每一个时代都会有一批或更多的知识分子叛逆者都会在那个时候遭到迫害、
condemmed,or suppressed at the time; but to a late age, they seem harmless and often essential to the elevation of human conditions.
谴责,甚至是镇压;但在后来的岁月,他们似乎无害,并且在提高人类条件上起着重要作用。
The enormous success of science has led to the general belief that scientists have developed and are employing a "method"--
科学的巨大成功引出一个普遍的信念,即科学家们已经研制并且运用了一种“方法”?
a method that is extremely effective in gaining, organizing, and applying new knowledge.
一种在获得、组织和运用新的知识方面极端有效的方法。
Galileo, famous scientist of the 1600s, is usually credited with being the "Father of the Scientific Method."
伽俐略,十七世纪的著名科学家,被认为是“科学方法之父”。
His method is essentially as follows:
他的主要方法如下:

  1.Recognize a problem.
1、认明问题。

  2. Guess an answer.
2、猜想答案。

  3.Predict the consequences of the guess.
3、预测猜想结果。

  4. Perform experiments to test predictions.
4、进行实验证明预测。

  5. Formulate the simplest theory that organizes the three main ingredients:
5、用公式表述形成这三大要素:
guess, prediction, experimental outcome.
猜想、预测及实验结果的最简明的理论。
Although this cookbook method has a certain appeal,
尽管这标准化的方法有一点的吸引力。
it has not been the key to most of the breadthroughs and discoveries in science.
但它并不是大多数科学突破和发现的关键。
Trial and error, experimentation without guessing,
反复试验、不作猜测的实验,
accidental discovery, and other methods account for much of the progress in science.
偶然的发现,还有其它的方法都是许多科学进步的原因所在。
Rather than a particular method, the success of science has more to do with an attitude common to scientists.
科学的成功不在于采用特殊的方法,它更取决于科学家们所共有的一种态度。
This attitude is essentially one fo inquiry, experimentation, and humility before the facts.
这种态度的实质就是探究、实验和尊重事实。
If a scientist holds and idea to be true and finds any counterevidence whatever,
如果一位科学家认为某种观点是正确的,可后来又发现相反的证据,
the idea is either modified or abandoned.
他就会修改或放弃这一观点。
In the scientific spirit, the idea must be modified or abandoned spite of the reputation of the person advocating it.
依照科学的精神,不管提出这一观点的人有多高的声望,这个观点都必须修正或放弃,
As an example, the greatly respected Greek philosopher Aristotle said that falling bodies fall at a speed proportional to their weight.
例如,深受人们尊重的希腊哲学家亚里士多德说过:落体的速度与其重量成正比。
This false idea was held to be true for more than 2,000 years because of Aristotle's immense authority.
因为亚里士多德的巨大权威,这一错的观点在2000多年的时间里一直被认为是正确的。
In the scientific spirit, however, a single verifiable experiment to the contrary outweighs any authority,
然而,依照科学的精神,单单一次反证实验就可胜过任何权威。
regardless of reputation or the number of followers and advocates.
不管你的名望有多高,或者追随者和拥护者的人数有多少。
Scientists must accept facts even when they would like them to be different.
科学家必须接受事实,即使他们希望事实不是如此。
They must strive to distinguish between what they see and what they wish to see--
他们必须力求去把他们所看到的及他们所希望看到的加以区分??
for humanity's capacity for self-deception is vast.
因为人类的自欺能力是很强的。
People have traditionally tended th adopt general rules, beliefs, creeds, theories,
人们往往倾向于采纳一般的规则、信仰、信念、理论
and ideas without thoroughly questioning their validity and to retain them long after they have been shown to be meaningless,
和观点,而不经过全面地询问它们正确与否,而且早在它们被证明是毫无意义的、
false, or at least questionable.
错误的、或至少是有疑问的之后,仍保留不改。
the most widespread assumptions are the least questioned.
传播最广的假定最少受到疑问。
Most often, when an idea is adopted, particular attention is given to cases that seem to support it,
通常,当一种观点被接受,支持它的论点往往受到特别重视,
while cases that seem to refute it are distorted, belittled, or ignored.
而那些似乎是反驳它的论点却被歪曲、贬低或忽视。
We feel deeply that it is a sign of weakness to "change our minds".
我们深深地感到“改变主意”是一种弱点的表现,
Competent scientists, however, must be expert at changing their minds.
然而,有能力的科学家必须善于改变看法。
This is because science seeks not to defend our beliefs but to improve them.
这是因为科学所追求的不是保护人们的信念,而是去改进它们。
Better theories are made by those who are not hung up on prevailing ones.
只有那些不迷恋盛行观点的人才能创造出更好的理论。
Away from their profession, scientists are inherently no more honest or ethical than other people.
离开他们的职业,科学家们并不比其他人生来就更诚实、更讲道德。
But in their profession they work in an arena that puts a high premium on honesty.
但在他们职业范围内,他们却工作在一种极为看重诚实的圈子里。
The cardinal rule in science is that all claims must be testable
科学中一条主要的原则就是所有的断言都必须是可检验的??
They must be capable at least in principle, of being proved wrong.
它们必须至少在原则上都能够被证明是正确或错误的。
For example, if someone claims that a certain procedure has a certain result, it must in principle be possible to perform a procedure that will either confirm or contradict the claim.
比如,若有人声称某种程序会有某种结果,那么,在原则上,就必须能施行一种程序既能证明又能反驳这一断言。
If confirmed, then the claim is regarded as useful and a stepping-stone to further knowledge.
若被证实,那么这一断言就被看作是有用的,并且可作为进一步获取知识的一个台阶。
None of us has the time or energy or resources to test every claim,
没有人能够有时间、精力和财力去验证每一个断言,
so most of the time we must take somebody's word.
因此,大多数情况下,我们必须相信某人的观点。
However, we must have some criterion for deciding whether one person's word is as good as another's and whether one claim is as good as another.
然而,在判断某人的观点或断言是否与另外一个观点或断言同样正确时,我们必须有一个尺度,
The criterion, again, is that the claim must be testable.
这个尺度同样是:断言必须能够被检验的。
To reduce the likelihood of error, scientists accept the word only of those whose ideas
为了减少出错的可能性,科学家们只接受那些观点、
theories, and findings are testable--if not in practice then at least in principle.
理论和研究成果经得起检验的人的思想言论;这些言论即便不是在实践中至少也要在原理上可以得到检验。
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