Unit One
第一单元
Writing research reports for college or work is often found far more difficult than it needs to be.
为学习或工作写调查报告通常会比它所需要的要困难得多。
The following article offers some excellent advice on how to make the task easier and the report more impressive and effective.
下面的几篇文章为怎样使这项任务更容易,报告更深刻和有效提供了一些非常好的见意。
Whether you write a research report for a college professor or for a demanding boss in your profession,
无论你是为党校的教授还是因为你老板的要求
the author's advice will put you well on your way to becoming a skillful report writer.
作者的意见将为你成为一个高明的报告作家提供指导
RESEARCH REPORTS FOR BUSINESS AND TECHNICAL WRITING
商务、技术研究报告的写作
Wayne Losano
韦恩?洛桑诺
A surprising amount of one's time as a student and professional is spent reporting the results of one's research projects for presentation to teachers,
作为学生和专业人员,他们花了大量时间将自己的研究项目的结果报告给老师,
Managers, and clients.
经理和委托人。
Indeed, without basic research skills and the ability to present research results clearly and completely,
的确,一个人如果没有从事研究工作的基本技能和将研究成果清楚而完整地表达的能力,
an individual will encounter many obstacles in school and on the job.
那么他就会在学习和工作中碰到许多障碍。
The need for some research-writing ability is felt nearly equally by college students in all fields,
科研写作能力的需要对于在各个领域的学生都是相等的,
engineering and science as well as business and the humanities.
无论理工科学生还是商务、人文学科的学生都是这样
Graduate study often makes great demands on the student's research-writing skills,
研究生阶段的学习对学生的科研写作提出了很高的要求,
and most professions continue the demand;
而且大多数职业继续要求这样:
education, advertising and marketing, economics and accounting,
教育(学)、广告与市场营销、经济学与会计学,
Science and engineering, psychology, anthropology, the arts,
理工科、心理学、人类学、艺术
and agriculture may all require regular reporting of research data.
以及农艺可能都要定期报告研究的信息。
ELEMENTS OF THE RESEARCH PAPER
研究报告的要素
The standard research report,
标准的研究报告,
regardless of the field or the intended reader,contains four major sections.
不论是哪个领域或针对哪类读者,都有四个主要部分。
These sections may be broken down into a variety of subsections,
这些大的部分可以分成许多小的部分,
and they may be arranged in a variety of ways,
而且结构安排可以多种多样,
but they regularly make up the core of the report.
但是报告的核心通常由这四大部分组成的。
Problem Section.
问题部分。
The first required section of a research report is the statement of the problem with which the research project is concerned.
研究报告的首要部分就是陈述研究项目所涉及的问题。
This section requires a precise statement of the underlying question which the researcher has set out to answer.
这一部分要求准确阐述研究者要问答的根本问题。
In this same section there should be an explanation of the significancesocial, economic,
在这同一个部分里应该从社会、经济,
medical, psychological, educational, etc.of the question;
医学、心理、教育方面来解释问题的意义:
in other words, why the investigation was worth conducting.
换言之,为什么值得进行这项研究。
Thus, if we set out, for example,
这样,举例来说,如果我们开
to answer the question "What is the effect of regular consumption of fast foods on the health of the American teenager?"
回答“经常食用快餐食品对美国青少年有什么影响?”
We must explain that the question is thought to have significant relevance to the health of this segment of the population and might lead to some sort of regulations on such foods.
那么我们就必须解释,此问题认为同这部分的人口有着非常密切的关系,可能导致对此类食品作出某种规定。
A subsequent subsection of this problem section is a review of past research on the topic being investigated.
问题这一部分通常有一个小部分对该课题过去的研究民情况进行回顾。
This would consist of summaries of the contributions of previous researchers to the question under consideration with some assessment of the value of these contributions.
这可能包括对这个问题以前的研究者作出的贡献进行总结以及对这些贡献作出某种评价。
This subsection has rhetorical usefulness ,
这一小部分具有修辞作用,
in that it enhances the credibility of the researcher by indicating that the data presented is based on a thorough knowledge of what has been done in the field
因为它显示了所提供的资料是在对本领域所取得的成果透彻理解的基础上取得的,因而它提高了对研究者的可信度。
and,possibly, grows out of some investigative tradition.
并且很可能是从某种调查研究中得出来的。
Procedures Section. The second major section of the research report details,
过程部分。研究报告的第二大部分准确阐述了,
with as much data as possible, exactly how the study was carried out.
用尽可能多的资料,研究是如何进行的。
This section includes description of any necessary equipment,
这部分包括说明所需要的设备,
how the subjects were selected if subjects were used,
实验对象是怎样选择的,如果使用了的话,
what statistical technique was used to evaluate the significance of the findings,
用什么统计方法来评价实验成果的意义,
how many observations were made and when, etc.
进行了多少次观察以及什么时候进行的等。
An investigation of the relative effectiveness of various swim-strokes would have to detail the number of swimmers tested,
如果要对不同泳姿的相应效果进行研究的话,那么就要详细说明参加测试的人数,
the nature of the tests conducted, the experience of the swimmers,
进行测试的性质,游泳者的经历,
the weather conditions at the time of the tests,
进行测试的天气条件,
and any other factors that contributed to the overall experiment.
以及对整个实验有影响的其它因素。
The goal of the procedures section is to allow the reader to duplicate the experiment if such were desired to confirm, or refute, your findings.
过程部分的目的是让读者能模拟实验,如果他愿意这么样来证实或驳斥你的结果的话。
Results Section.
结果部分。
The third, and perhaps most important, section of the research report is the presentation of the results obtained from the investigation.
研究报告的第三,也许是最重要的部分是展示从研究中获得的结果。
The basic rule in this section is to give all data relevant to the research question initially asked.
这部分的基本原则就是对最初提出的问题提供一切有关的资料。
Although, of course, one's natural tendency might be to suppress any findings which do not in some way support one's hypothesis,
当然,虽然人的自然倾向可能是对任何在某方面与自己的假设不符的结果进行隐瞒,
such dishonesty is antithetical to good research reporting in any field.
可是这种不诚实与任何领域优秀的研究报告是相背的。
If the experiments undertaken fail to prove anything,
如果所进行的实验不能证实什么,
if the data was inadequate or contrary to expectations,
如果资料不充分或与期望相反,
the report should be honestly written and as complete as possible,
那么研究报告就应该如实而且尽可能完整地写下来,
just as it would be if the hypothesis were totally proven by the research.
就象假设被研究证实了的那样把它写下来。
Discussion Section.
讨论部分。
The final required section of a research report is a discussion of the results obtained and a statement of any conclusions which may be drawn from those results.
研究报告的最后一个必要部分就是讨论所获得的结果,阐述从那些结果中得出的任何结论。
Of primary interest in business and technical research reports is the validity of the results as the bases for company decisions:
在商务和技术的研究报告中,人们主要关注是结果的可靠性,这也是公司决策的依据;
Will our planned construction project meet federal environmental guidelines and be approved for building?
我们策划的项目符合联邦环境政策吗?会得到批准进行吗?
Will this new program attract skilled personnel to our company?
这个新项目会吸引技术人材到我们公司来吗?
Will this new oil recovery technique be financially feasible?
从金融方面看,这项石油回收新技术可行吗?
Thus, the discussion section of the research report must evaluate the research results fully:
这样,研究报告的讨论必须全面评价研究成果:
were they validly obtained, are they complete or limited,
它们获得是否真实?它们是完整的还是有局限性?
are they applicable over a wide range of circumstances?
它们的应用范围很大吗?
The discussion section should also point out what questions remain unanswered and perhaps suggest directions for further research.
讨论部分也应该指出哪些问题仍然没有找到答案,也许对进一步研究提出一些建议。
STYLE OF RESEARCH REPORTS
研究报告的文体
Research reports are considered formal professional communication.
人们认为研究报告是属于正规的专业交流。
As such, there is little emphasis on a lively style, although, of course, there is no objection to writing that is pleasing and interesting.
据此,并不强调用活泼文体,当然也不反对文章写得生动有趣。
The primary goals of professional communication are accuracy, clarity and completeness.
专业交流的主要目的是准确、明晰,完整。
The rough draft of any research report should be edited to ensure that all data is correctly presented,
校订任何研究报告初稿都应保证所有资料正确提供,
that all equipment is listed,
所有设备列出,
that all results are properly detailed.as an aid to the reader,
所有结果恰当详述。为方便读者,
headings indicating at least the major sections of the report should be used, and all data should be presented under the proper headings.
应该使用标题,至少标明报告的主要部分,而所有资料都应当在恰当的标题下陈述。
In addition to their function of suggesting to the reader the contents of each section,
标题除了有向读者提示每部分内容的功能外,
headings enhance the formal appearance and professional quality of the report,
它还提高了报告的规范性和学术质量,
increase to some degree the writer's credibility by reflecting a logical and methodical approach to the reporting process,
同时报告是按逻辑、有条理地写出来的,因此在某种程度上增加了作者的可信度,
and eliminate the need for wordy transitional devices between sections.
消除了报告各部分之间冗长的承上启下的词语。
Research data should be presented in a way that places proper emphasis on major aspects of the project.
应该用一种恰当强调项目主要方面的方式陈述研究资料。
For different readers different aspects will take on different degrees of importance,
对于不同的读者来说,不同的方面具有不同的重要性。
and some consideration should be given to structuring research reports differently for different audiences.
应该考虑到报告的结构因不同的读者而有所不同。
Management, for example, will be most concerned with the results of a research project,
例如:资方对研究项目的结果最为关心,
and thus the results section should be emphasized,
所以这部分应该加以强调。
probably by presenting it immediately after the problem section and before the procedures section.
在问题部分之后和过程部分之前,有可能立即出现。
Other researchers would be most interested in the procedures section,
其他的研究人员对过程部分尤为感兴趣,
and this should be highlighted in writing up research projects for publication in professional journals or for presentation at professional conferences.
所以在把研究项目整理成文用于在专业刊物发表或在专业会议上宣读时,这一部分应该着重突出。
For non-technical readers and federal agencies,
对于非专业读者和联邦机构来说,
the implications of the results might be the most important consideration,
首要考虑的是研究结果的含意,
and emphasis should be placed on the discussion of the report for this readership.
对于这部分读者来说,应该强调讨论部
 

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