Chapter Ⅵ The Seventeenth Century
1603-1688
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  1. Historical Background
The English Bourgeois Revolution and Restoration: The weakening of the tie between monarchy and bourgeoisie; The clashes between the King and Parliament; The outburst of the English Revolution; The split within the revolutionary camp; The bourgeois dictatorship and the Restoration
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  2. English Literature of the First Quarter of the 17th Century:
The King James Bible of 1611;
Francis Bacon; Metaphysical Poetry and Cavalier Poetry
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  2.1 The King James Bible of 1611
History of Bible: History of English Bible King James’ Bible of 1611 Also known as the 1611 Authorized Version of
the Bible;
47 scholars worked on it. The project was presided over by Bishop Lancelot Andrewes The basis: Tyndale text
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  2.2 Francis Bacon (1561-16
  26)
Life: Born in London; studied at Cambridge; studied law later; appointed Lord Chancellor during the reign of James Ⅰ. Imprisoned for corruption. Bacon’s only predecessor in the field of the essay was Michel de Montaigne (1533-15
  92), the French country squire; Bacon’s chief contribution lies in his role as the founder of materialism in philosophy and science in England. He employs what may be called the dialectical method by balancing opposing arguments before drawing his conclusions.
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  2.3 Metaphysical Poets and Cavalier Poets
Two antagonistic camps: the Royalists and the Puritans. The Metaphysical Poets: John Donne, Andrew Marvell, George Herbert John Donne: “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning” (16
  11) The Cavalier Poets: Sir John Suckling, Robert Herrick, Ben Johnson Carpe Diem: a Latin phrase meaning “seize the day”. The philosophy of carpe diem asserts the notion that since life is short, one must make the most of one’s youth. This motif became very popular in the love poetry of the seventeenth century.
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  3. English Literature during the English Bourgeois Revolution
John Milton : Milton as the Spokesman of the Revolution . “When I Consider How My Light Is Spent”; Milton the revolutionary , Milton the epic poet ; Every progressive English poet since Milton draws inspiration from him. a pamphlet to justify the execution of Charles Ⅰ: “ Defence of the English People” (16
  51) Persecution after the Restoration of Charles Ⅱ
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  4. English Literature of the Restoration John Bunyan John Dryden
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  4.1 John Bunyan (1628-16
  88)
Bunyan: a pilgrim; a man of innocence, diligent; With sensitive imagination Once enlisted in the Parliamentary army Bunyan lived at a time when political struggles adopted the form of religious struggles. The Pilgrim’s Progress from This World
to That Which Is to Come
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allegory: a work of art intending to be meaningful on at least two levels of understanding: a literal level and an abstract (figurative, or moral) level. The term derives from the Greek “allegorein”, meaning “to speak in other words”
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Major Works by Bunyan
The Pilgrim’s Progress (Part Ⅰ, 16
  78) The Pilgrim’s Progress (Part Ⅱ,16
  84)
( deals with the pilgrimage of Christiana, Christian’s wife, and her children, accompanied by her neighbor Mercy.) Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners (16
  66) The Life and Death of Mr. Badman (16
  80) The Holy War (16
  82)
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Beelzebub: A term used by both Jesus and his opponents for Satan, the chief of devils. The word comes from Baal-zebub, a Philistine god who was believed to be the creator of flies. n.魔王, 魔鬼 Apollyon: from Greek, meaning destroyer. n. 恶魔, 亚玻伦(《圣经》中的人物,无底坑的使者 Legion: represents immense power and force, for the demonic hosts of Satan.
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  4.2 John Dryden (1631-17
  00) :
a poet, playwright and critic; a prolific writer. He turned with the tide, “time-server”; The forerunner of the English classical school of literature in the 18th Century From Dryden to Johnson, English critics value poetry according to its power to affect an audience.
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Features of Literary Criticism of the Time
  1. It does not stress literary theories, but particular works
  2. It does not give comprehensive commentary, but just a few points
  3. Impression rather than reasoning
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