Lesson 1 Text A
  1. Fixed subjects and curricula are likely to go into the melting pot and school themselves, if not as physical locations then at least as places exclusively for children, are threatened with extinction. 固定的学科和课程可能会融为一体, 学校自身若不是因为实际位置, 那么至少会因为只招收儿童而面临灭绝的威 胁。
  2. Because the tradition they were established to pass on became a dead weight, because school became an institution instead of an approach to life, because there was too much emphasis on the written words, too much subject-division, too much authoritarianismin a word, too much school and not enough learning. 因为他们所建立并延续的传统已成为沉重的负担, 因为学校已成为一个机构而非一种生活方式, 因为有太多的教 条、太细的科目划分、太注重权威――总而言之,太多的正规教育而缺乏足够的自我学习。
  3. The move towards democracy in schooling has several causes, including the general demand for qualified labor to meet the demands of stepped-up technology. In some countries ideology is behind the move, in others, the consequences of decolonization. 推动教育民主化的原因有多个,要符合快速发展的科学技术就需要大量合格的劳动力。在某些国家,推动教育民 主化进程的动力是意识形态;而在另一些国家,教育民主化是非殖民地化的结果。
  4. But the report points out that there is a wide gap between a decision of principle to provide universal education and the democratization of systems, for, as they are currently structured, inequality is built into them. “The universal right to education, in which contemporary civilization takes such premature pride,” says the commission, “is often refused to the most underprivileged. 但是报告指出,在原则上决定推进大众化教育与实行教育体系的民主化之间,存在着一条难以逾越的鸿沟。 因为在当前的教育体制结构中本身就存在着不平等的现象。委员会认为, ‘无权无势的阶层并未享有全民接受 教育的权利,而对此当代文明却过早地引以为豪’ 。
  5. Merely multiplying schools is not the answer. What is needed is not equal treatment for everybody, but provision for each individual of a suitable education at a suitable pace for his particular needs. 单纯地增加学校的数量并非解决问题之道。 我们所需要的不是千篇一律地对待每个人, 而是根据个人需要以合适 的速度为他们提供合适的教育。
  6. Schools, insofar as they continue to exist as we have known them, cease, under this system, to be reserved to children and become places of learning for future and present adults. 在此体系下,那些为人熟知的学校,便不再专为儿童所设,而是成为现在及将来成人的求知场所。 Text B
  1. Become acquainted with words and their meanings. Learn how to make use of a wide variety of words and how to use a dictionary to help you understand words. Make it a practice to write down words you do not know. Try to work out their meaning from their context in the sentence. If this does not help your understanding, check the meaning later in the dictionary. 熟悉单词,理解词义。学会如何使用字典和丰富多样的词汇以帮助理解词义。养成做生词笔记的习惯,并且尝试 着联系句子内容来理解词义。如果还是不懂,再去查字典。
  2、Keep your concentration fixed o the words you are reading and the author’s meaning. Do not explore your own interpretation of the subject as you read. Keep that for later and explore your own ideas when you have finished the reading. 阅读时要专心致志,把注意力集中到文字的表达和作者的意思上,而不是边读边揣摩自己的理解。你可以保留自 己的理解,在读完文章后进行个人的思考。
  3、It is important to recall enough of the details to talk about the subject accurately and intelligently. Our ability to recall what you read will be helped by making a Paragraph Key and a summary. Make it a practice to check what you recall of the importance things you read. 有一点很重要的是,我们要回忆尽量多的细节,以便在讨论主题的时候能切中要害,富有见地。而想要提高回忆 细节的能力,我们可以从分析段落大纲,归纳段落重点入手。之后,逐步养成这习惯,对自己回忆的这些重点进 行检验。
1
Lesson 2 Text A
  1. I knew about jim-crow but I had never experienced it. I went to the same self-service restaurant three times and stood with all the Princeton boys before the counter, waiting for a hamburger and coffee; it was always an extraordinarily long time before anything was set before me;but it was not until the fourth visit that I learn that , in fact, nothing had ever been set before me: I had simply picked something up. 我知道白人歧视黑人,但是没亲身经历过。我曾经三次光顾同一家自助式饭店,和那里所有的普林斯顿大学学生 一起站在柜台前,等着汉堡和咖啡。但是在等所有东西准备好、端上来的这段时间总是格外漫长。直到第四次去 那里的时候我才意识到,事实上,从来都没有任何东西摆在我面前。我只是随便拿些东西吃。
  2. My reputation in town naturally enhanced my reputation at work and my working day became one long series of acrobatics designed to keep me out of trouble. I cannot say that these acrobatics succeeded. It began to seem that the machinery of the organization I worked for was turning over, day and night, with but one aim: to eject me. 我在镇上的名声自然而然地提升了我在工作上的名声。 我的日常工作犹如一连串杂技动作以使我远离麻烦。 我不 能说这些伎俩是否成功,工厂里的机器似乎也开始日日夜夜不停运转,唯一的目的就是想把我轰走。
  3. That year in New Jersey lives in my mind as though it were the year during which, having an unsuspected predilection for it, I first contracted some dread, chronic disease, the unfailing symptom of which is a kind of blind fever, a pounding in the skull and fire in the bowels. Once this disease is contracted, one can never be really carefree again, for the fever, without an instant’s warning, can recur at any moment. 住在新泽西的一年一直让我记忆犹新,仿佛我对那一年有着说不出的偏爱。那一年,我第一次染上了一种可怕的 慢性疾病,其一成不变的症状是:莫名其妙的发高烧,头颅里面好像一直有东西在撞击,肚子像火烧一样。人一 旦染上这样的病,那么这辈子就别想再无忧无虑,因为发烧在没有任何丝毫预兆的情况下,随时都可能复发。
  4. As it turned out, he also saved me from, at the very least, a violent whipping. Almost every detail of that night stands out very clearly in my memory. I even remember the name of the movie we saw because its title impressed me as being so patly ironical. 结果他至少让我免于一顿鞭打。 那晚的几乎每一个细节都清晰地浮现在我的脑海里。 我甚至记得我们看的那部电 影的名字,因为其极具讽刺意味,给我留下了深刻的印象。
  5. I certainly had no conscious plan. I wanted to do something to crush these white faces, which were crushing me. I walked for perhaps a block or two until I came to an enormous, glittering, and fashionable restaurant in which I knew not even the intercession of the Virgin would cause me to be served. 我的确没有刻意的计划。我只是想做点什么,去粉碎那一张张白人的脸孔,因为那些白脸正在把我压碎。我大概 走了一两个街区,来到一家金碧辉煌又豪华时尚的大饭店。我知道就算圣母玛利亚为我求情,也不可能让我享受 到服务。
  6. Somehow, with the repetition of phrase, which was already ringing in my head like a thousand bells of a nightmare, I realized that she would never come any closer and that I would have to strike from a distance. There was nothing on the table but an ordinary water-mug half full of water, and I picked this up and hurled it with all my strength at her. 不知道为什么, 听到那句一再重复的话, 我感觉就像噩梦中无数遍响起的钟声。 我知道她再也不会向我靠近半步, 这样的话我就不得远距离发起攻击了。桌上除了一只盛有半杯水的普通水杯,什么也没有,我便拿起杯子用尽我 全身的力气向她扔去。 Text B
  1.So the natural person to hate would be the black person. He’s beginning to come up, he’s beginning to…start voting and run for political office. Here are white people who are superior to them, and we are shut out…. 因此,自然而然黑人就成了憎恨的对象。他们开始走狗屎运了,开始参加选举,竞选政府官员了。白人本该高他 们一等,可我们却被挡在门外。
  2.Most of them are merchants or may be an attorney, an insurance agent, people like that. As long as they kept low-income whites and low-income blacks fighting, they are going to maintain control. I began to get the feeling after I was ignored in public. 他们中的大多数都是商人、律师、保险代理人、或诸如此类的人。只要他们能使穷白人和穷黑人不停地作对,他 们就能掌控一切。当我走在路上被他们视而不见后,我才开始明白这点。
2

  3.There are two things management wants to keep: all the money and all the say-so. They don’t want none of these poor working folks to have none of that. I began to see management fighting me with everything they had. Hire anti-union law firms, badmouth unions. The people were making $
  1.95 an hour, barely able to get through weekends…. 有两样东西是掌权者不可或缺的:钱和权。他们不会给我们这些穷哥们其中的任何一样。我开始明白,掌权者在 用他们的一切跟我作对:聘请反工会的律师,雇佣造谣生事的帮会。这些人每个小时才赚
  1.95 美元,这些钱还 不够他们熬过周末的。
Lesson 3 Text A
  1.Yet the communities of physicians, and of public and corporate researchers, seem unable to organize the process. Why is the nation unwilling or unable to expend the effort and money to launch an applied biology and bioengineering effort to develop ad test a vaccine? 然而医学界,公众,企业研发人员好象不能组织起来推动这个过程。为什么国家不愿或不能花费精 力和资金应用生物学和生物工程学的研究成果来开发和测试疫苗?
  2.Two scientific reasons are given for the reluctance to begin a national effort to develop a vaccine. One is that AIDS might be caused by a family of closely related variants of the same virus and that therefore no vaccine could be effective. The other is that there are no animals suitable for initial testing of a vaccine and thus no way to be sure a vaccine is safe for testing in people. 不愿举全国之力开发疫苗在科学上有两种原因。 其一是爱滋病可能是由与同一病毒亲密关系的病毒 家族引起的,因此,没有什么疫苗是具有特效的。其二是没有合适的动物来为疫苗进行原始测验, 因此没有办法确保疫苗对人体进行测试时的安全性。
  3.The population at risk and ready to volunteer for testing is largely homosexual. Our political leaders apparently do not wish to be involved with this minority. As a result, the clock runs out on thousands of victims without even the beginning of an effort to develop the vaccine that might prevent new cases from occurring. 受爱滋病威胁并且愿意接受测验的大部分人是同性恋者。 我们的政界领袖显然不希望与这一小撮人 有牵扯。 结果导致我们甚至没有开始做阻止新病例产生的努力时, 成千上万的受害者已经时日无多。
  4.All physicians have taken an oath to do no harm. But in fact they do harm by sitting quietly by, or referring AIDS victims to another physician or hoping the disease will quietly go away after it destroys a few thousand homosexual men and narcotics addicts. It is not enough to offer succor and solace. Physicians and scientists should lobby actively for a nationwide effort to develop an AIDS vaccine. 所有的医生都发誓不能对病人造成伤害。然而事实上,当他们袖手旁观,将爱滋病受害者推给其他 医生, 或者希望这个病在伤害了成千上万的同性恋和吸毒者的性命之后会悄悄离去, 他们已经对病 人造成了伤害。仅仅提供援助和安慰是远远不够的。医生和科学家们应该积极游说,使全民共同努 力来开发爱滋疫苗。
Text B

  1.With the gaining of our political freedom you will remember that there came a conflict between the point of view of Alexander Hamilton, sincerely believing in the superiority of Government by a small group of public-spirited and usually wealthy citizens, and, on the other hand, the point of view of Thomas Jefferson, an advocate of Government by representatives chosen by all the people, an advocate of the universal right of free thought, free personal living, free religion, free expression of opinion and, above all, th
 

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