像是绕着一颗明亮的星球(即太阳)旋转的微粒,伴随着她的是无数其他的微粒(即行 星) 。再往远处延伸,我看到我们的星球太阳是银河系中不计其数的星球中的一颗。再远一些,我看到银河系是 宇宙中亿万星系中的一个。
  2. I am not only located in space and in time and in personal relationships. I am also located in the world of nature, in a world of how things operate. I know that when I get into my car there are some things I must do to start it: some things I must do to back out of the parking lot: something I must do to drive home. 我不仅位于空间、时间和人际关系中。同时我也身处自然世界中,一个万事万物以各自方式运行的世界。我知道 当我上车时,我必须开始某些步骤来启动汽车;也同时需要某些动作将车退出停车位;并需要继续操作将车开回 家。
  3. I know that if I lean too far backward in my chair as I sit here at my desk. I will probably fall over. I live, in other words, in a world of reasonably stable relationships, a world of “ifs” and “thens” of “if I do this, then that will happen.” 我知道如果我坐在办公桌前,椅子往后靠得太多,很有可能会摔倒。换言之,我生活在一个万物之间具有相对稳 定关系的世界中,这个世界中充满了‘如果’和‘那么’‘如果我这么做,那么会发生那样的事。 , ’
  4. What I have been talking about is knowledge. Knowledge, perhaps, is not a good word for this. Perhaps one word would rather say my IMAGE of the world. Knowledge has an implication of validity, of truth. What I am talking about is what I believe to be true; my subjective knowledge. It is this image that largely governs my behavior. 我所谈论的是知识。也许知识并不是一个恰当的词。也许可以用一个更恰当的词比如说我对世界的影像。知识暗
示着正确性、真实性。而我正在谈论的是我认为真实的东西,我的主观知识。正是这种影像很大程度上掌控着我 的行为。 Lesson 6 Text A
  1. Almost every college graduate can spin at least a few tales about a boisterous night of carousing that culminated in slugging shots of tequila at sunrise or tossing drained kegs into the president’s pool. Even Thomas Jefferson had to contend with a group of drunken rowdies who caused a near riot at the school that he founded in 1819, the University of Virginia. Ever since then, periodic efforts to crack down on excessive alcohol consumption among young scholars have been largely futile. 几乎每一个大学毕业生都能够说出几个关于狂欢喧闹之夜的故事。 聚会的高潮是: 大家一杯接一杯地狂饮龙舌兰 酒或者把空的小酒桶扔进校长的游泳池里。托马斯?杰弗逊当年也不得不跟一群滋事的酒鬼作斗争,这帮人在他 于 1819 年创立的弗吉尼亚大学造成了近乎暴动的骚乱。从那以后,对学生酗酒现象一直进行了周期性打压,但 大多无功而返。
  2. Not just freshmen, prodded by over-anxious parents, but upperclassmen as well are demanding alcohol-and drug-free living and study environments. Even at party-hearty Dartmouth College in New Hampshire, the students in an entire dormitory have pledged to stay sober during their four years of school. Repentant drinkers, meanwhile, are helping organize Alcoholics Anonymous groups on campus. 不仅仅是那些被过度紧张的父母催促的新生, 还有那些高年级学生同样希望有一个无酗酒无嗑药的生活和学习环 境。 就算是在美国新罕布什尔州达德摩士学院这样一个热衷于开派对的学校, 也有整个寝室的学生都起誓要在四 年的大学生活里远离酒精,保持清醒。同时,那些悔改的酗酒者也帮助在校园里组织戒酒协会。
  3. Still small and somewhat timid, the campus temperance movement has taken its cue from anti-smoking campaigns. Restrictions on public smoking gained momentum after non-smokers learned about the dangers of secondhand smoke. Once those in the smokeless majority realized that their own health and quality of life were directly affected, they stood up and demanded their right to a tobacco-free airspace. 尽管校园禁酒运动的规模很小,胆气不足,但已经从禁烟运动中得到启示。自从非吸烟者了解到二手烟的危害以 后,抵制在公共场合吸烟的运动也渐成气候。一旦大多数没有吸烟的人们知道他们的健康和生活质量会直接 受到影响时,他们就会站出来要求捍卫他们拥有无烟空间的权利。
  4. But the findings suggest that among the many students who like to binge, there is a more relentless, desperate quality to the pursuit of intoxication. The drinkers also seem more blase than ever about the consequences. 但是调查结果表明,很多喜欢饮酒作乐的学生都有一个特点,即变本加厉、不顾一切、不醉不休,这些酒鬼 对可能产生的后果毫不在意。
  5. A particularly pernicious sign of the times is a phenomenon called frontloading, in which students drink alcohol, usually hard liquor, in private before attending a social event. 学生酗酒行为的最鲜明的现象是“垫底” ,即学生通常在参加社会活动前,会私下喝一些高浓度的酒。
  6. To those who are fed up with binge drinking, the experts offer this advice: don’t get even, get mad. “They must speak up for their rights,” 对那些已经厌倦了酗酒现象的人, 专家的建议是: 不要忍气吞声, 要奋起反抗。 “他们必须敢于维护自己的权利, ” Text B
  1. Enforced school absence in childhood is sometimes used by adults to justify their own career failure. It is difficult for a child to play truant regularly if his parents are keen for him to attend school. Much truancy is openly condoned; as for the rest, not knowing that your children play truant is equivalent to not ensuring that they are at school. It shows lack of interest in their whereabouts, apathy about their education, or inability to control themi.e.,ineffective parents… 成年人有时会把现在的事业无成归咎于自己儿时的逃学行为。 如果父母强烈要求孩子要去上学, 那么对这个孩 子来说,要想逃学就很困难了。大多数父母都会公开原谅孩子的旷课行为,而对其他家长而言,对自己的孩子 逃课毫不知情就等同于不确定自己的孩子是否在校。这表明,其对子女的行踪和教育都漠不关心,或是在管教 子女方面力不从心。?? 即,他们是不合格的父母。
  2. The characteristics which lead families to reject regular schooling are likely to have other detrimental effects on the
children besides educational failure. For what could make parents decide that the most widely agreed route to secure employment, social acceptance and personal satisfaction is not for them? The first reason is a general difficulty in dealing with family responsibilities, particularly in the stressful environment of modern cities. 导致家庭拒绝接受正常学业的这些特征,除了教育上的失败以外,很可能对孩子产生其他不利的影响。是什么 让这些父母认定被大多数人广泛认同的通往就业保障、 社会认可和自我满足的道路就不适合自己孩子的?第一 个原因是,尤其在这个充满压力的城市环境中,承担家庭责任并非易事。
  3. Habitual non-attendance can accustom children very early in their lives to rejecting the values and legal requirements of society. It is a training in deviance and anti-social behaviour which can lay the foundation for a generally deviant career. The common progression from truancy or parentally-condoned absence to juvenile crime has been reliably established. 习惯性的逃学让孩子在很小的年纪就习惯于摈弃社会的价值观和法律规约。这是在“训练”他们离经叛道,与 社会背离,为其将来走上斜路种下了祸根。从旷课到父母纵容的逃学再到少年犯罪这一普遍的演变过程已经得 到了有力的证实。
  4. This is because the seriousness with which they regard non-attendance is an issue on which social workers and workers in education differ. Social workers tend to regard it as merely one symptom of social failure which, particularly if homelessness, physical neglect, marital problems and illness are present, does not justify more attention than the rest. 这是由于社会工作者和教育工作者在看待逃学问题的严重性上发生了分歧。社会工作者倾向于认为逃学仅仅 是其在社会失败者的特征之一。尤其当无家可归、缺衣少食、婚姻变故和家人生病等问题也一并存在时,逃 学问题并没有理由要获得更多的关注。
  5. Non-attendance can so injure a child’s life chances that it deserves to be tackled by a more single-minded attack than this. A concerted policy should focus on the following areas: first, the school’s own capacity for holding the interest of pupils; second, its efficiency in registering unexplained, absences; third, school-oriented social work; fourth, boarding schools; and fifth, public attitude. 逃学会极大地影响一个孩子的人生,所以必须采取一个更强有力的措施来解决这个问题。 我们需要一个多方合作的策略,包括以下几方面:第一,学校要有能力保持学生的学习兴趣;第二,校方要 提高调查无故旷课现象的效率;第三,由学校来主导社会工作;第四,让学生住校;第五,公众对待学生旷 课的态度。
  6. The man in the street, even when knocked sideways by a diminutive footballer during school hours, merely curses and walks on. Would absence rates be any different if the public occasionally “had a go” at obvious non-attenders and encourages them to give their teacher another chance to make school worthwhile for them? 在该是学校上课时间里,一个行人在街上被一个玩橄榄球的小孩撞了一下腰,他只是骂了两句,接着就继续 往前走了。如果公众能尝试着帮一把这些明显是旷课逃学的学生,并鼓励他们再给老师一个机会,相信老师 会让他们觉得读书是件有意义的事情,那么旷课率是否就会有所下降呢? Lesson 7
  1. In a chapter on cancer, for instance, his description of how the cells operate contains this starling analogy: “In the community of living tissues, the uncontrolled mob of misfits that is cancer behaves like a gang of perpetually wilding adolescents. They are the juvenile delinquents of cellular society. ” 例如,在介绍癌症的章节里,他在描述癌细胞如何运行时,做了一个让人耳目一新的类比:癌细胞是活 细胞社区里一群格格不入的失控暴徒,就像是一伙永远恣意妄为的青少年。他们是细胞社会里的少年犯。
  2. The rescue effort was for naught. Venting a death rattle, the patient “ threw back his head once more and, staring upward at the ceiling with the glassy, unseeing gaze of open dead eyes, roared out to the distant heavens a dreadful rasping whoop that sounded like the hounds of hell were barking. ” the intern on duty assured Nuland he had done all that could be done. Conscious only of his failure, the doctor-to-be wept uncontrollably. 所有的努力抢救都无功而返。病人发出临死的叫声,头再次向后倒去,用死人那种空洞、呆滞的眼光凝 视着天花板,向着老天爷大声嚎叫,如同地狱之犬的嘶吼那样吓人。值班的实习医生安慰努兰说,他已经尽 力了。而实习医生努兰却认为是自己抢救失败而抽泣不已。

  3. Nonetheless, in several chapters he excoriates the arrogance and hubris of medical specialists, who so frequently in America take charge of patients with a terminal disease. Forgetting that most people in extremis want a peaceful and painless end, these experts see cancer or heart disease or whatever primarily as riddles to be deciphered. 尽管如此,在书中几个章节里他严厉斥责了一些傲慢狂妄的医学专家,在美国,他们经常去为那些身患不 治之症的病患看诊。可这些医学专家们忽视了大多数垂死的病人渴望能平静地,没有痛苦地死去,而首先把 癌症,心脏疾病和其他一些疑难杂症看成是一个待解之谜,竭力想要破解它。
  4. What of the Hippocratic oath ? the doctor’s imperative to save lives whenever possible? Nuland argues that patients have the right to determine the proper for them to go. He has no use for specialists in assisted suicides ? “accoucheurs to the grave, ” he scornfully calls them ? but considers it permissible for doctors to abet the process of dying in cases of unendurable pain. 你们难道忘了新开业医生所立的誓言,即作为一名医生的准则是竭尽全力、救死扶伤?努兰认为,病人 有权决定自己什么时候离开人世。他对帮助病人自杀的医学专家不屑一顾??他讥讽地称之为帮人走向坟墓 的助手??但他认为医生可以帮助那些无法忍受病痛的人加快死亡的进程。
  5. “The greatest dignity to be found in death is the dignity of the life that preceded it,”



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