unit 3 input and output
1-new words:

  1. access v. 访问 Input and output devices provide a means for people to access a computer.

  2.input device: keyboard, mouse
  3.output device: printer , display screen/monitor

  4. pixel
  5. resolution n. 像素 n. 分辨率
The quality , or resolution, of the picture is a function of the number of pixels.
  6.joystick n. 操纵杆 Perhaps the best-known device for controlling the cursor is a joystick.
new words:

  7.mouse 鼠标 Cursor control can be obtained with a mouse, a small, palmsized device with a roller on the bottom. 用鼠标器能得到光标控制.该鼠标器是一个手掌大小的装置 在它的底步有一个滚子 用鼠标器能得到光标控制 该鼠标器是一个手掌大小的装置,在它的底步有一个滚子 该鼠标器是一个手掌大小的装置 在它的底步有一个滚子.
  8. magnetic media n. 磁介质
  9. optical media n. 光介质
  10. voice recognition
  11. voice response
  12. interface n. 语音识别
n. 语音响应
n. 接口
2-please remember to the technical terms

  1、dot matrix printer 、 点阵式打印机
  2、cursor 、 Usually seen as a blinking line or a box, the cursor indicates the position where the next character typed will appear. 常见的光标形状是一条闪烁的线或一个小方框, 常见的光标形状是一条闪烁的线或一个小方框 光标指明了下个键入字符应出 现的位置. 现的位置
  3.bar code Bar codes, such as the Universal Product Code printed on most supermarket packages, can be read at a checkout station or by a variety of hand-held scanners. 条形码,即在大多数超级市场包装上的通用商品代码 可在结帐台读它 条形码 即在大多数超级市场包装上的通用商品代码,可在结帐台读它 或者用各式 即在大多数超级市场包装上的通用商品代码 可在结帐台读它,或者用各式 各样的手动扫描器读它. 各样的手动扫描器读它
2-please remember to the technical terms

  4、peripheral device 、
  5.buffer A buffer is a temporary memory or register used to adjust for speed differential between two devices. 缓冲寄存器是暂态存储器或者寄存器, 用来调节两个设备之间速度的差别. 缓冲寄存器是暂态存储器或者寄存器 用来调节两个设备之间速度的差别 外部设备
Next:see the text
1.Accessing a computer.
Input and output devices provide a means for people to access a computer. In this chapter, we’ll consider a number of input and output devices, and then show how they are physically linked to a computer.

  2.Basic Input and Output . First: keyboards and display screens Second : printers Third : graphics fourth : magnetic media fifth : optical media sixth : terminals seventh : voice recognition/voice response

  2.Basic Input and Output .
First: keyboards and display screens
The basic input device on most small computer systems is a keyboard. As characters are typed, they are stored in main memory, and then copied from memory to the basic output device, a display screen. In effect, the screen, often called a monitor, serves as a window on main memory, allowing the user to view its contents. 翻译:大多数小型计算机系统基本的输入设备是键盘.当键入字符 时,字符就存入主存中,然后再把它从存储器复制到基本的输出设 备?显示器.事实上,显示器通常称为监视器,作为主存的一个窗 口,允许用户查看它的内容.

  2.Basic Input and Output ? .
Second : printers
The image displayed on a screen is temporary; it fades as soon as the power is cut. By routing the output to a printer, a permanent copy( called a hard copy) is obtained. route v. 递送 翻译:显示在屏幕上的图象是暂态的,电源一断它就立即消失 了.用打印机输出,可得到永久性的拷贝(称硬拷贝).
dot matrix printer letter ?quality printer bubble jet printer laser printer 点阵式打印机 字母式打印机 喷墨打印机 激光打印机

  2.Basic Input and Output .
Third : graphics fourth : magnetic media fifth : optical media sixth : terminals seventh : voice recognition/voice response Reading page 51-55

  3. Linking the components . First: interface
Each input or output device represents or interprets data in its own unique way, and the signals used by a peripheral device may or may not match the signals stored inside the computer. If these dissimilar devices are to communicate, translation is necessary . This is the function of the interface. 翻译:每个 设备以自己独有的方式表示或翻译数据.一个外围设备采用的电信号不 翻译:每个I/O设备以自己独有的方式表示或翻译数据 一个外围设备采用的电信号不 设备以自己独有的方式表示或翻译数据 完全可能与存在计算机内部的信号相匹配.如果这些不同类型的设备要进行通信 如果这些不同类型的设备要进行通信, 完全可能与存在计算机内部的信号相匹配 如果这些不同类型的设备要进行通信,就必 须进行转换,这就是接口板的功能. 须进行转换,这就是接口板的功能. Many interface boards contain buffers. A buffer is temporary memory or register used to adjust for the speed differential between two devices. 翻译:许多接口板包括缓冲寄存器.缓冲寄存器是暂态存储器或者寄存器 翻译:许多接口板包括缓冲寄存器.缓冲寄存器是暂态存储器或者寄存器, 用来调 节两个设备之间速度的差别. 节两个设备之间速度的差别

  3. Linking the components . Second : channel and control unit Reading page 56-58
翻译: 翻译: Although only one variable is allowed immediately to the left of the equal sign in an assignment expression, the variable on the left of the equal sign can also be used on the right of the equal sign. For example, the assignment expression sum=sum+10 is valid. Clearly, in an algebra equation a variable could never be equal to itself plus
  10. But in C, the expression sum=sum+10 is not an equation- it is an expression that is evaluated in two major steps. The first step is to calculate the value of sum+
  10. The second step is to store the computed valued in sum.
Translate the following words and expressions into English.
1、数字小键盘 2、 标点符号键 3、数字键 4、 箭头键 5、 功能键 6、 字母键 7、 光电鼠标 8、机械鼠标 9、光学机械鼠标
  10、液晶显示器 、 CRT(阴极射线管) (阴极射线管) 显示器
numeric keypad punctuation key numeric key arrow key function key letter/character key optical mouse mechanical mouse optic-mechanical mouse liquid crystal display Cathode ray tube display
Translate the following words and expressions into English.
color graphics adapter
  11.彩色图形适配器(CGA) enhanced graphics adapter
  12.增强图形适配器(EGA) professional graphics adapter
  13.专业型图形适配器(PGA) video graphics adapter
  14.视频图形阵列(VGA) printer
  15.打印机 15 character printer
  16.字符打印机 stylus printer
  17.针式打印机 page printer
  18.页式打印机 impact printer
  19.击打式打印机 dot matrix printer
  20.点阵打印机 ink jet printer
  21.喷墨打印机 laser printer
  22.激光打印机
Translate the following words and expressions into English.

  23.中央处理器(CPU)
  24.控制器
  25.运算器
  26.时钟
  27.指令控制单元
  28.算术逻辑运算单元
  29.指令计数器
  30.寄存器
  31.主存
  32.辅存
  33.缓冲存储器(快存)
  34.海量存储器
  35.只读存储器
Central processing unit Control unit Arithmetic unit clock Instruction control unit Arithmetic and logic unit instruction counter register main memory secondary memory cache Mass storage Read-only memory
Translate the following words and expressions into English.

  36.随机存储器
  37.软盘
  38.软盘驱动器(软驱)
  39.磁道
  40.扇区 40
  41.硬盘
  42.光盘
  43.只读型光盘(CD-ROM)
  44.可读写光盘(CD-RW)
  45.CD
  46.VCD
  47.DVD
Random access memory floppy disk/diskette floppy disk drive track sector Hard disk Disk/disc
Compact disk read only memory
CD-ReWritable Compact disc/disk Video compact disc Digital versatile disk
Translate the following words and expressions into English.

  48.总线
  49.数据总线
  50.地址总线
  51.控制总线
  52.单总线结构 52
  53.多总线结构
  54.并口
  55.串口
  56.字长
  57.主频
  58.速度
  59.存储容量
bus Data bus Address bus Control bus Single-bus architecture Multiple-bus architecture Parallel port Serial port Word size the clock speed speed Memory capacity
数学公式的读法(Pronunciation of mathematical expressions) 数学公式的读法
1 逻辑 逻辑(Logic) ? there exists
?
for all
p? q p implies q / if p, then q p?q p if and only if q p is equivalent to q p and q are equivalent
数学公式的读法(Pronunciation of mathematical expressions) 数学公式的读法
2 集合 集合(Sets)
x∈A x?A A?B A?B A∩B A∪B B/A A×B x belongs to A / x is an element (or a member) of A x does not belong to A / x is not an element (or a member) of A A is contained in B / A is a subset of B A contains B / B is a subset of A A cap B / A meet B/ A intersection B A cup B/ A join B / A union B A minus B/the difference between A and B A cross B / the Cartesian product of A and B(A与B的笛卡尔积)
数学公式的读法(Pronunciation of mathematical expressions) 数学公式的读法
3 实数(Real numbers)
x+1 x-1 x±1 ± xy (x-y)(x+y)
x y
x plus one x minus one x plus or minus one xy / x multiplied by y x minus y, x plus y x over y the equals sign x equals 5 / x is equal to 5 x (is) not equal to 5 x is equivalent to (or identical with) y
= x=5 x≠5 x≡y
数学公式的读法(Pronunciation of mathematical expressions) 数学公式的读法
3 实数(Real numbers)
x>y x is greater than y x≥y x is greater than or equal to y x< y x is less than y x≤y x is less than or equal to y ≤ 0<x<1 zero is less than x is less than 1 0≤x≤1 zero is less than or equal to x is less than or equal to 1 ≤ ≤ |x| mod x / modulus x x2 x squared / x (raised) to the power 2 x3 x cubed x4 x to the fourth / x to the power four xn x to the nth / x to the power n x-n x to the (power) minus n
数学公式的读法(Pronunciation of mathematical expressions) 数学公式的读法
3 实数(Real numbers)
n! n factorial (x+y)2 x plus y all squared xi xi / x subscript i / x suffix i / x sub i
∑a
?x? ? ? ? y? ? ?
i =1
n
i
2
the sum from i equals one to n ai / the sum as i runs from 1 to n of the ai x over y all squared x hat
? x
x
x bar
~ x
x tilde
数学公式的读法(Pronunciation of mathematical expressions) 数学公式的读法
4 线性代数(Linear algebra)
||A||
OA
OA
the norm (or modulus) of x OA / vector OA OA / the length of the segment OA A transpose/the transpose of A A inverse/the inverse of A
AT A-1
数学公式的读法(Pronunciation of mathematical expressions) 数学公式的读法
5 函数 函数(Functions)
f(x) f : S→T
x? y
f′(x) ′ f″(x) ″ f″′ ″′(x) ″′ f(
  4) ln y
fx / f of x / the function f of x a function f from S to T x maps to y / x is sent (or mapped) to y f prime x / f dash x / the (rst) derivative of f with respect to x f double?prime x / f double?dash x / the second derivative of f with respect to x f triple?prime x / f triple?dash x / the third derivative of f with respect to x four x / the fourth derivative of f with respect to x log y to the base e / log to the base e of y / natural log (of) y
数学公式的读法(Pronunciation of mathematical expressions) 数学公式的读法
5 函数 函数(Functions)
?f ?x1
the partial (derivative) of f with respect to x1
?2 f ?x 12
the second partial (derivative) of f with respect to x1 the integral from zero to infinity


0
x → +0
lim
the limit as x approaches zero from above
Translate the following screen messages into Chinese:
  1.Enables you to use the arrow keys on your keyboard to move the mouse pointer. 翻译:允许在键盘上使用方向键来移动鼠标指针。
  2.Enter the name of the workgroup you want your computer to belong to. 翻译:输入你想使计算机所处工作组的名称。
  3.DATE fields have the form mm/dd/yy. 翻译:日期字段的格式为月/日/年。
  4.Fill in the requested information and type your message. 翻译:填充需要的信息并输入你的信息。
Translate the following screen messages into Chinese:
  5.Hit space bar for options. 翻译:按空格键进行选择。
  6.Illegal decimal length. 翻译:非法十进制数长度。
  7.Indicates the date when the information in this file or folder was last changed. 翻译:指明该文件或文件夹的信息最后更改日期。
  8.Insufficient memory to run this application. 翻译:运行该应用程序内存不够。
Translate the following screen messages into Chinese:
  9.Mark one or more selected records for deletion. 翻译:对一个或多个记录加删除标志。
  10.Names start with a letter, the remainder may be letters, digits, or underscore. 翻译:字段名必须以字母开头,后跟字母,数字或下划线。
  11.Lists the types of files you can use with this applica
  •  
 

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