计算机专业英语教程 20
  10.
  5.1
Computer science major course
Computer English
Chapter 1 The History and Future of Computers
As a computer science student,we should study English hard
This book is very important to us
Key points:
useful terms and definitions of computers
Difficult points:
describing the features of computers of each generation
Requirements:

  1. The trends of computer hardware and software

  2. Basic characteristics of modern computers

  3. Major characteristics of the four generations of modern computers

  4. 了解科技英语的特点,掌握科技英语翻译要点

  1.1 The Invention of the Computer
New Words & Expressions:
computerlike a. 计算机似的electromechanical a. 机电的, 电机的
vacuum tubes 真空管Census Bureau 人口普查局
thousands of 成千上万的 known as 通常所说的,以……著称
Abbreviations:
ENIAC(Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)
电子数字积分计算机,ENIAC计算机
EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer)
延迟存储电子自动计算机
BINAC (Binary Automatic Computer) 二进制自动计算机
UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) 通用自动计算机

  1.1 The Invention of the Computer
It is hard to say exactly when the modern computer was invented. Starting in the 1930s and through the 1940s, a number of machines were developed that were like computers. But most of these machines did not have all the characteristics that we associate with computers today. These characteristics are that the machine is electronic, that it has a stored program, and that it is general purpose.
很难确切地说现代计算机是什么时候发明的。从20世纪30年代到40年代,制造了许多类似计算机的机器。但是这些机器大部分没有今天我们所说的计算机的所有特征。这些特性是:机器是电子的,具有储存的程序, 而且是通用的。
One of the first computerlike devices was developed in Germany by Konrad Zuse in 19
  41. Called the Z3, it was general-purpose, stored-program machine with many electronic parts, but it had a mechanical memory. Another electromechanical computing machine was developed by Howard Aiken, with financial assistance from IBM, at Harvard University in 19
  43. It was called the Automatic Sequence Control Calculator Mark I, or simply the Harvard Mark I. Neither of these machines was a true computer, however, because they were not entirely electronic.
第一个类似计算机的装置之一是1941年由德国的Konrad Zuse研制的,叫做Z3,它是通用型储存程序机器,具有许多电子部件,但是它的存储器是机械的。另一台机电式计算机器是由霍华德.艾坎在IBM的资助下于1943年在哈佛大学研制的。它被称为自动序列控制计算器Mark I,或简称哈佛Mark I。然而,这些机器都不是真正的计算机,因为它们不是完全电子化的。

  1.
  1.1 The ENIAC
Perhaps the most influential of the early computerlike devices was the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, or ENIAC. It was developed by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania. The project began in 1943 and was completed in 19
  46. The machine was huge; it weighed 30 tons and contained over 18,000 vacuum tubes.
也许早期最具影响力的类似计算机的装置应该是电子数字积分计算机,或简称ENIAC。它是由宾夕凡尼亚大学的J. Presper Eckert 和John Mauchly 研制的。该工程于1943年开始,并于1946年完成。这台机器极其庞大,重达30吨,而且包含18,000多个真空管。

  1.
  1.1 The ENIAC
The ENIAC was a major advancement for its time. It was the first general-purpose, electronic computing machine and was capable of performing thousands of operations per second. It was controlled, however, by switches and plugs that had to be manually set. Thus, although it was a general-purpose electronic device, it did not have a stored program. Therefore, it did not have all the characteristics of a computer .
ENIAC是当时重要的成就。它是第一台通用型电子计算机器,并能够执行每秒数千次运算。然而,它是由开关和继电器控制的,必须手工设定。 因此,虽然它是一个通用型电子装置,但是它没有储存程序。 因此,它不具备计算机的所有特征。
While working on the ENIAC, Eckert and Mauchly were joined by a brilliant mathematician, John von Neuman. Together, they developed the idea of a stored program computer. This machine, called the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer, or EDVAC, was the first machine whose design included all the characteristics of a computer. It was not completed, however, until 19
  51.
在ENIAC的研制中,一个天才的数学家Von Neuman(冯.诺伊曼)加入到 Eckert和Mauchly团队,他们一起提出了储存程序计算机的主意。这部机器被称做电子离散变量自动计算机, 或简称EDVAC,是第一部包括了计算机所有特征的机器。然而,直到1951年,它一直没有完成。
Before the EDVAC was finished, several other machines were built that incorporated elements of the EDVAC design of Eckert, Mauchly, and von Neuman. One was the Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer, or EDSAC, which was developed in Cambridge, England. It first operated in May of 1949 and is probably the world’s first electronic stored-program, general-purpose computer to become operational. The first computer to operate in the United States was the Binary Automatic Computer, or BINAC, which became operational in August of 19
  49.
在EDVAC完成之前,其他一些机器建成了,它们吸收了Eckert、Mauchly和Neuman设计的要素。其中一部是在英国剑桥研制的电子延迟存储自动计算机,或简称EDSAC,它在1949年5月首次运行,它可能是世界的第一台电子储存程序、通用型计算机投入运行。在美国运行的第一部计算机是二进制自动计算机,或简称BINAC,它在1949年8月投入运行。
Like other computing pioneers before them, Eckert and Mauchly formed a company in 1947 to develop a commercial computer. The company was called the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation. Their objective was to design and build the Universal Automatic Computer or UNIVAC. Because of difficulties of getting financial support, they had to sell the company to Remington Rand in 19
  50. Eckert and Mauchly continued to work on the UNIVAC at Remington Rand and completed it in 19
  51. Known as the UNIVAC I, this machine was the first commercially available computer.
像他们之前的其他计算机先驱一样,Eckert和Mauchly在1947年组成了一家公司开发商业计算机。公司名叫Eckert-Mauchly计算机公司。他们的目标是设计并建造通用自动计算机或UNIVAC。因为难以获得财政支持,他们不得不在1950年把公司卖给了Remington Rand公司。Eckert 和Mauchly继续在Remington Rand公司从事UNIVAC的研制工作,并在1951年取得成功。众所周知的UNIVAC I机器是世界上第一部商业化计算机。
The first UNIVAC I was delivered to the Census Bureau and used for the 1950 census. The second UNIVAC I was used to predict that Dwight Eisenhower would win the 1952 presidential election, less than an hour after the polls closed. The UNIVAC I began the modern of computer use.
第一台UNIVAC I被交付人口普查局用于1950年的人口普查。在投票点关闭后1小时之内,第二台UNIVAC I 被用于预测D.艾森豪威尔会赢得1952年总统大选。UNIVAC I开始了现代计算机的应用。

  1.2 Computer Generations
New Words & Expressions:
result in 导致, 造成……结果 air conditioning 空气调节
take delivery of 正式接过…Navy lieutenant 海军上尉
high-level language 高级语言 mainframe n. 主机, 大型机
more and more 越来越多的 range from …to… 从…到…
multiprogramming n.多道程序设计 time-share n.分时,时间共享
virtual memory 虚拟内存 from scratch 从头开始
compatible a. 兼容的; compatibility n. 兼容性
outnumber vt. 数目超过,比…多 proliferate v. 增生,扩散
start off v. 出发, 开始
Abbreviations :
VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit) 超大规模集成电路
LSI (Large Scale Integrated Circuit) 大规模集成电路
DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) 美国数字设备公司
COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language) 面向商业的通用语言

  1.
  2.1 First-Generation Computers: 19
  51~1958
First-generation computers were characterized by the use of vacuum tubes as their principal electronic component. Vacuum tubes are bulky and produce a lot of heat, so first-generation computers were large and required extensive air conditioning to keep them cool. In addition, because vacuum tubes do not operate very fast, these computers were relatively slow.
第一代计算机的特色是使用真空管为其主要电子器件。真空管体积大且发热严重,因此第一代计算机体积庞大,并且需要大量的空调设备保持冷却。此外, 因为真空管运行不是很快,这些计算机运行速度相对较慢。
The UNIVAC I was the first commercial computer in this generation. As noted earlier, it was used in the Census Bureau in 19
  51. It was also the first computer to be used in a business application. In 1954, General Electric took delivery of a UNIVAC I and used it for some of its business data processing.
UNIVAC I是第一代中最早的商业化计算机。如前所述,它在1951年被用于人口普查局。它还是第一部用于商业应用的计算机。在1954年,通用电气接收了UNIVAC I,并用它进行一些商业数据处理。

  1.
  2.1 First-Generation Computers: 19
  51~1958
The UNIVAC I was not the most popular first-generation computer, however. This honor goes to the IBM 6
  50. It was first delivered in 1955 before Remington Rand could come out with a successor to the UNIVAC I. With the IBM 650, IBM captured the majority of the computer market, a position it still holds today.
然而,UNIVAC I并不是最流行的第一代计算机。这一荣誉属于IBM 6
  50。它在Remington Rand能够造出UNIVAC I的后续产品之前的1955年首次交付使用。凭借IBM 650,IBM占有了大半计算机市场,它在今天仍然保持这一位置。

  1.
  2.1 First-Generation Computers: 19
  51~1958
At the same time that hardware was evolving, software was developing. The first computers were programmed in machine language, but during the first computer generation, the idea of programming language translation and high-level languages occurred. Much of the credit for these ideas goes to Grace Hopper, who, as a Navy lieutenant in 1945, learned to program the Harvard Mark I. In 1952, she developed the first programming language translator, followed by others in later years. She also developed a language called Flow-matic in 1957, which formed the basis for COBOL, the most commonly used business programming language today.
同时,硬件在进化,软件也在发展。第一部计算机用机器语言编程,但是在第一代计算机期间,程序语言翻译的概念和高级语言出现了。这些主意大部分归功于Grace Hopper,她在1954年是一名海军上尉,学习为哈佛Mark I计算机编程。在1952年,她开发了第一种编程语言翻译器,在稍后的数年内为其他人所效仿。她还在1957年开发了一种称为Flow-matic的语言,为COBOL??今天最广泛应用的商业编程语言??奠定了基础。

  1.
  2.1 First-Generation Computers: 19
  51~1958
Other software developments during the first computer generation include the design of the FORTRAN programming language in 19
  57. This language became the first widely used high-level language. Also, the first simple operating systems became available with first-generation computers.
在第一代计算机期间, 软件方面的其他的进展包括1957年FORTRAN语言的设计。这种语言成为第一种广泛使用的高级语言。同时, 第一个简单的操作系统随着第一代计算机而出现。

  1.
  2.2 Second-Generation Computers: 19
  59~1963
In the second generation of computers, transistors replaced vacuum tubes. Although invented in 1948, the first all-transistor computer did not become available until 19
  59. Transistors are smaller and less expensive than vacuum tubes, and they operate faster and produce less heat. Hence, with second-generation computers, the size and cost of computers decreased, their speed increased, and their air-conditioning needs were reduced.
在第二代计算机中,晶体管取代了真空管。虽然发明于1948年,但第一台全晶体管计算机直到1959年才成为现实。晶体管比真空管体积小、价格低,而且运行快而发热少。因此,随着第二代计算机的出现,计算机的体积和成本降低、速度提高,且它们对空调的需要减少。
Many companies that had not previously sold computer entered the industry with the second generation. One of these companies that still makes computers is Control Data Corporation (CDC). They were noted for making high-speed computers for scientific work.
许多先前不经销计算机的公司随着
 

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