第二代计算机的出现进入计算机行业,其中今天仍然制造计算机的公司之一是控制数据公司(CDC),他们以制造用于科学工作的高速计算机而著名。

  1.
  2.2 Second-Generation Computers: 19
  59~1963
Remintong Rand, now called Sperr-Rand Corporation, made several second-generation UNIVAC computers. IBM, however, continued to dominate the industry. One of the most popular second-generation computers was the IBM 1401, which was a medium-sized computer used by many businesses.
Remintong Rand,现在叫做Sperr-Rand公司,制造了一些第二代UNIVAC计算机。然而,IBM继续称霸计算机行业。最流行的第二代计算机之一是IBM 1401, 这是一部许多企业使用的中型计算机。
All computers at this time were mainframe computers costing over a million dollars. The first minicomputer became available in 1960 and cost about $120,0
  00. This was the PDP-1, manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).
当时所有的计算机都是价值百万元以上的大型计算机。第一台小型计算机产生于1960年,价值12万美元,它就是由数据设备公司(DEC)制造的PDP-
  1。

  1.
  2.2 Second-Generation Computers: 19
  59~1963
Software also continued to develop during this time. Many new programming languages were designed, including COBOL in 19
  60. More and more businesses and organizations were beginning to use computers for their data processing needs.
在此期间软件也在继续发展。许多新的编程语言被发明,包括1960年发明的COBOL。越来越多的企业和组织开始使用计算机以满足他们的数据处理需要。

  1.
  2.3 Third-Generation Computers: 19
  64~1970
The technical development that marks the third generation of computers is the use of integrated circuits or ICs in computers. An integrated circuit is a piece of silicon (a chip) containing numerous transistors. One IC replaces many transistors in a computer; result in a continuation of the trends begun in the second generation. These trends include reduced size, reduced cost, increased speed, and reduced need for air conditioning.
作为第三代计算机标志的技术发展是在计算机中使用集成电路或简称IC。一个集成电路就是包含许多晶体管的一个硅片(芯片)。一个集成电路代替了计算机中的许多晶体管,导致了始于第二代的一些趋势的继续。这些趋势包括计算机体积减小、成本降低、速度提高和对空调的需要减少。
Although integrated circuits were invented in 1958, the first computers to make extensive use of them were not available until 19
  64. In that year, IBM introduced a line of mainframe computers called the System/3
  60. The computers in this line became the most widely used third-generation machines. There were many models in the System/360 line, ranging from small, relatively slow, and inexpensive ones, to large, very fast, and costly models. All models, however, were compatible so that programs written for one model could be used on another. This feature of compatibility across many computers in a line was adopted by other manufacturers of third-generation computers.
虽然集成电路发明于1958年,但是直到1964年才出现了第一台广泛使用IC的计算机。那一年,IBM推出了称为System/360的大型计算机系列。这一系列的计算机成为使用最广泛的第三代计算机。在System/360系列中有许多机型, 从小型的、相对较慢的且价格低廉的机型,到大型的、非常快的且价格昂贵的机型。然而,所有的机型都是兼容的,以便在一个机型上编写的程序可以用于另一个机型。这个在许多计算机系列间兼容的特征被其他第三代计算机制造商所采用。
The third computer generation was also the time when minicomputers became widespread. The most popular model was the PDP-8, manufactured by DEC. Other companies, including Data General Corporation and Hewlett-Packard Company, introduced minicomputers during the third generation.
计算机的第三代也是小型计算机普及的时代。最流行的小型机是由DEC制造的PDP-
  8。其他公司,包括数据通用公司和惠普(Hewlett-Packard)公司,在第三代期间开发了小型计算机。
The principal software development during the third computer generation was the increased sophistication of operating systems. Although simple operating systems were developed for first-and second-generation computers, many of the features of modern operating systems first appeared during the third generation. These include multiprogramming, virtual memory, and time-sharing. The first operating systems were mainly batch systems, but during the third generation, interactive systems, especially on minicomputers, became common. The BASIC programming language was designed in 1964 and became popular during the third computer generation because of its interactive nature.
在第三代计算机期间,软件的主要发展是操作系统的复杂化程度提高。虽然为第一代和第二代计算机开发了简单的操作系统,许多现代操作系统的特征首先在第三代期间出现。这些特征包括多道程序设计、虚拟存储和分时技术。第一代操作系统主要是批处理系统,但是在第三代期间,交互式系统开始普及,尤其是在小型计算机上。BASIC语言发明于1964年,并由于其交互式特征而在第三代计算机期间大为流行。

  1.
  2.4 Fourth-Generation Computers: 19
  71~?
The fourth generation of computers is more difficult to define than the other three generations. This generation is characterized by more and more transistors being contained on a silicon chip. First there was Large Scale Integration (LSI), with hundreds and thousands of transistors per chip, then came Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), with tens of thousands and hundreds of thousands of transistors. The trend continues today.
第四代计算机比其他三代更难以定义。这一代计算机的特征是一个芯片上包含越来越多的晶体管。首先,出现了一个芯片上具有数百和数千个晶体管的大规模集成电路(LSI),接着出现了一个芯片上具有数万和数十万个晶体管的超大规模集成电路(VLSI)。这个趋势在今天仍在持续。
Although not everyone agrees that there is a fourth computer generation, those that do feel that it began in 1971, when IBM introduced its successors to the System/360 line of computers. These mainframe computers were called the System/370, and current-model IBM computers, although not called System/370s, evolved directly from these computers.
虽然并不是每个人都同意存在一个第四代,那些认为存在的觉得它开始于1971年,其时IBM开发了System/360系列计算机的下一系列产品。这些大型计算机称为System/370,当前的IBM计算机虽然不叫做System/3
  70,但都是从这些计算机直接发展而来的。
Minicomputers also proliferated during the fourth computer generation. The most popular lines were the DEC PDP-11 models and the DEC VAX, both of which are available in various models today.
小型计算机也在第四代期间迅速增长。最流行的系列是DEC公司的PDP-11机和DEC的VAX机,二者在今天的各种机型中仍然有效。
Supercomputers first became prominent in the fourth generation. Although many companies, including IBM and CDC, developed high-speed computers for scientific work, it was not until Cray Research, Inc., introduced the Cray 1 in 1975 that supercomputers became significant. Today, supercomputers are an important computer classification.
超级计算机首先在第四代中突起。虽然包括IBM和CDC(控制数据公司)在内的许多公司都为科学工作开发了高速计算机,但是直到1975年Cray研究有限公司推出了Cray
  1,超级计算机才变得有意义。今天,超级计算机是重要的计算机分类。
Perhaps the most important trend that began in the fourth generation is the proliferation of microcomputers. As more and more transistors were put on silicon chips, it eventually became possible to put an entire computer processor, called a microprocessor, on a chip. The first computer to use microprocessors became available in the mid-1970s. The first microcomputer designed for personal use was the Altair, which was sold in 19
  75. The first Apple computer, marketed with the IBM PC in 19
  81. Today, microcomputers far outnumber all other types of computers combined.
也许在第四代计算机开始的最重要趋势是微型计算机的增长。随着越来越多的晶体管被集成到硅芯片上,将一整个计算机处理器(称为微处理器)放在一个芯片上终于成为可能。使用微处理器的第一部计算机出现于1970年代。第一部专为个人使用设计的微型计算机是Altair,它于1975进入市场。第一部苹果计算机在1981年与IBM个人计算机一起在市场上销售。今天,微型计算机数目远远超过其他所有类型计算机的总和。
Software development during the fourth computer generation started off with little change from the third generation. Operating systems were gradually improved, and new languages were designed. Database software became widely used during this time. The most important trend, however, resulted from the microcomputer revolution. Packaged software became widely available for microcomputers so that today most software is purchased, not developed from scratch.
在计算机的第四代期间,软件的发展开始与第三代有所不同。操作系统在逐渐地改进,而新的语言被发明。期间数据库软件被广泛使用。然而,最重要的趋势起因于微型计算机革命。用于微型计算机的软件包随处可得,因此今天大多数的软件可以购得,而不需从头开始开发。

  1.
  2.5 Generationless Computers
We may have defined our last generation of computers and begun the era of generationless computers. Even though computer manufacturers talk of “fifth” and “sixth”-generation computers, this talk is more a marketing play than a reflection of reality.
我们可能已经定义了我们最新一代计算机而且开始了计算机的无代时代。即使计算机制造商谈到“第五”和“第六”代计算机,这些说法更多是市场行为,而不是真实的反映。
Advocates of the concept of generationless computers say that even though technological innovations are coming in rapid succession, no single innovation is, or will be, significant enough to characterize another generation of computers.
无代计算机的观念提倡者说,即使科技革新接二连三地迅速出现,没有一种革新是,或将是足够重要,作为另一代计算机的特征。

  1.3 Near-future Supercomputer Directions
New Words & Expressions:
glean vt., vi. 搜集(情报或事实) MD abbr. Maryland(马里兰)
Tflops abbr. teraflops 每秒兆兆(10
  12)次 architecture n.体系机构
terabit n.兆兆位factor n. 阶乘
bandwidth n.带宽 Terabyte n. 兆兆(10
  12)字节;
Petabyte n. 千兆兆(10
  15)字节microprocessor n.[计]微处理器
contemplate v.凝视, 沉思order n. 阶,次
turbulence n. 扰动;湍流
GB=GigaBit,千兆位; = GigaByte,吉字节
flops n. 每秒浮点运算次数(floating-point operation per second)
Some idea of what might be happening in the near future in supercomputer design can be gleaned from a press release issued by the US Department of Energy (DoE). It came out of the SUPERCOMPUTING 2002 Conference held last November in Baltimore, MD. The press release announced that the DoE had awarded IBM a $290 (USD) million contract to build the two fastest supercomputers in the world with a combined peak speed of 460 TFlops. To get an idea of the speed computing throughput 460 teraflops represents, the press release states that, “These two systems will have more than one-and-a-half times the combined processing power of all 500 machines on the recently announced TOP 500 List of Supercomputers.”
从美国能源部发行的通告中,可以收集一些有关在不久的将来超级计算机设计中可能发生的事情的概念。它来自在马里兰州巴尔的摩市召开的2002年超级计算会议。该通告称能源部已给IBM拨款
  2.9亿美元建造世界上最快的两部超级计算机,其最高综合速度为每秒460兆兆次。为了理解每秒460兆兆次速度的含义,通告解释说,“这两个系统将会具有最近发布的500强超级计算机的总处理能力的
  1.5倍还多。”
The first system, “ASCI Purple,” [apparently the DoE likes colorful names] will be the world’s first supercomputer capable of 100 Tflops. ASCI Purple will have a massive cluster of POWER-based IBM eServer systems and IBM storage systems. This supercomputer represents a fifth-generation system under the Advanced Simulation and Computing Initiative (ASCI) Program. It will serve as the primary supercomputer for DoE.
第一个系统“ASCI Purple”,[显然能源部;生动的名字]将会是世界的第一部能够运算每秒100兆兆次的超级计算机。ASCI Purple将具有基于POWER系列的IBM eServer 系统和 IBM 存储系统的宏大组群。这台超级计算机代表模拟和计算行动计划(ASCI)支持的第五代系统。它将作为能源部主要
 

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