Quiz 4 for L7 & L 8
Part I New Word Dictation Part II Multiple Choice Part III Translation A. Sentence B. Phrases Part IV Answer the questions
Part I New Word Dictation

  1. accommodate 收容,装有
  2. auxiliary 辅助的,备用的
  3. burst 突然爆裂,爆发,冲破
  4. explosion 爆炸
  5. facility 设备
  6. feature 功能,部件
  7. effect 实现,到达,作用,效果
  8. drop 下跌,下落,下降
  9. prevent 防止,预防
  10. direct 指导,指挥,直接的
Part II Multiple Choice

  1. is the main reason that reduces the power advantage of a two-stroke engine over a same size four-stroke one to about. A. Inefficient scavenging; twice B. Inefficient scavenging;
  1.8 times C. Fewer strokes in a circle; twice D. Fewer strokes in a circle;
  1.8 times
答案B (p8, para
  5) 扫气不充分是将与四冲程柴油机相同尺寸的二冲程柴油机的功率 优势降低到大约
  1.8倍的主要原因 Inefficient scavenging 扫气不充分

  2.If the engine is naturally aspirated or is a small high-speed type with a centrifugal turbocharger, the period of valve overlap, i.e. when both valves are , will be , and the exhaust valve will close some 10° top dead center. A. open; short; after B. closed; short; after C. open; long; before D. closed; long; before 答案 A (p8, para
  2) 如果柴油机是自然换气或带有径流增压器的小型高速机, 气阀重叠的时间,即两气阀同时开启的时间将很短。排 气阀将在上止点后10度左右关闭。 naturally aspirated自然换气 centrifugal turbocharger径流增压器 top dead center上止点

  3.In a two-stroke engine, there are always a series of openings known as , and in some circumstances, there are also openings known as , in the part of the cylinder liner inside the scavenging air box. A. scavenging air ports; exhaust ports B. inlet ports; scavenging air ports C. scavenging air ports; inlet ports D. exhaust ports; inlet ports
答案 A(p16, Last para) 在二冲程柴油机中,有一列开口被称为扫气口。在某种情况下, 在汽缸套伸入扫气箱内的部位也有一列开口被称作排气口。 scavenging air box 扫气箱

  4.In some type of two-stroke engines, besides some small holes for , starting valve, safety valve, indicator cock, and so on, there is a large central opening in each cylinder cover for mounting the . A. fuel valves; exhaust valve B. exhaust valves; inlet valve C. fuel valves; inlet valve D. exhaust valves; fuel valve 答案A (p17 para
  3) 在一些二冲程柴油机中,在缸盖上除了有一些小孔用于安装喷油 器,起动阀,安全阀,示功阀等,还有一个大型的中心孔用于安 装排气阀。 starting valve 起动阀 safety valve 安全阀 indicator cock 示功阀

  5.In a two-stroke engine, the piston consists of a lower part, which is named as and usually made of , and a upper part, which is referred to as and made of . A. low-half, cast iron; top-half, heat-resistant steel B. low-half, aluminum; top-half, stainless steel C. piston skirt; cast iron; piston crown; heat-resistant steel D. piston skirt; aluminum; piston crown; stainless steel 答案C 在二冲程柴油机中,活塞由其下部铸铁制成的活 塞裙,以及上部耐热钢制成的活塞头组成。

  6.In order to keep the oil film on the cylinder liner during the running-in period, the piston rings are slightly rounded . A. on both the external and internal top edges B. on both the external top and bottom edges C. on both the external and internal bottom edges D. on all the four edges 答案B (p17, para 5 from the last) 活塞环顶部和底部的外缘都稍有倒角,以便在新活塞环 磨合期间缸套上留有油膜。 running-in period 磨合期

  7.In order to control thermal stresses, some types of modern engines use pistons with . A. heavy wall and intensive cooling B. heavy wall and no cooling C. thin wall and no cooling D. thin wall and intensive cooling 答案D (p17, para 4 from the last 为了控制热应力,有的柴油机采用薄壁强冷的活塞。 thermal stresses 热应力

  8. In order to improve the working conditions of the crosshead bearings, the bearing pressure is made and the peripheral speed is made in later designs. A. smaller, higher B. higher, smaller C. smaller, smaller D. higher, higher 答案 A (p18 para
  2) 为了改善十字头轴承工作状况,后来的设计中轴承的压 力减少,圆周速度提高。 the crosshead bearings十字头轴承 peripheral speed圆周速度

  9.When the heavy fuel oil is heated to achieve the viscosity of 10-15 cSt, may occur. To avoid this, a system is used in most occasions. A. boiling and cavitations; low temperature B. boiling and cavitations; pressurized C. leaking and boiling; low temperature D. leaking and boiling; pressurized 答案B ( p24, last para) 重油加热到10-15 cSt粘度时会产生沸腾和气穴,为了 避免出现这一现象,在大多数情况下会使用压力系统。

  10.The fuel from the bunker tanks must be treated by before entering the service tanks, from where the fuel enters . A. centrifugal separators; the engine cylinder B. oily water separators; the engine cylinder C. oily water separators; the fuel supply system D. centrifuges; the fuel supply system
答案D (p25, para
  1) 燃油舱中的燃油在进入日用柜前必须经过离心分油机的处理,然 后才能进入燃油供应系统。
the bunker tanks燃油舱 the service tanks日用柜

  11.The following options are all the functions of lubricating oil except . A. removing heat and deposits B. neutralizing acidic C. lubricating D. improving combustion efficiency
答案D ( p37, para
润滑油的功能不包括提高燃烧效率。 removing heat and deposits 去除热量与沉积物 neutralizing acidic 中和酸

  12. diesel engines generally have two
systems of lubrication: a total loss system feeding and a circulating system lubricating the running gear and cooling the pistons. A. Large crosshead type, crosshead B. High speed, the cylinders C. Large crosshead type, the cylinders D. Four-stroke, pistons and cylinders
答案C 大型十字头式柴油机通常有两种润滑系统,用于气缸润滑的全消 耗系统和用于润滑运动部件及冷却活塞的循环系统。

  13.In some diesel engine designs, the injection of cylinder oil is timed to impinge when the piston and only impinge on . A. is coming upward, cylinder ring belt B. is going downward, piston ring belt C. is coming upward, piston ring belt D. is going downward, cylinder ring belt 答案C (p37, para
  4) 在某些柴油机的类型中,气缸的注油是定时的,当活塞 上行时,油只注到活塞环带区。 is timed是定时的 impinge 注射

  14.Large crosshead type engine generally has two lubrication systems, a function performed only by cylinder oil system is . A. lubricating B. cooling C. sealing D. cleaning 答案C ( p37, para
  4) 大型十字头式柴油机通常有两种润滑系统,只由气缸 润滑系统完成的功能是密封。

  15.Large crosshead type engine generally has two lubrication systems, a function performed only by crankcase oil system is . A. lubricating B. cooling C. cleaning D. neutralizing 答案B( p37, para
  6) 大型十字头式柴油机通常有两种润滑系统,只由曲柄箱 润滑系统完成的功能是冷却。

  16.“ The use of a poor quality oil can lead to rapid deterioration of its properties with the resultant formation of deposits in the piston crown which in turn results in a considerable reduction in heat transfer with subsequent overheating and thermal cracking.” According to the sentence, we can know that the principle reason of the overheating and thermal cracking is . A. the use of a poor quality oil B. the deterioration of its properties C. the formation of deposits D. the reduction in heat transfer ability 答案B ( p38, ) 使用劣质燃油会导致其性质迅速变坏,造成活塞头沉积 物的形成,从而热传递大量减少,最终导致过热和热裂

  17.Gas exchange, which is a basic part of the cycle of an internal combustion engine, is . A. the supply of normal air and removal of compressed air B. the supply of fuel oil and combustion of the atomized oil C. the supply of fresh air and removal of exhaust gases D. the supply of fresh air and removal of extra heat
答案C ( p42, para
  1) 换气作为内燃机循环的一个基本部分,是指供入新鲜空 气和排出废气。 Gas exchange换气 internal combustion engine内燃机

  18.“This increase in charge air density is accomplished on most modern diesel engine types by use of exhaust gas turbo-charging, in which a turbine wheel driven by exhaust from the engine is rigidly coupled to a centrifugal type air compressor.” According to this sentence, we can know that increases charge air density, drives the compressor directly. A. a modern diesel engine, a turbine wheel B. a modern diesel engine, exhaust gases C. a compressor, an exhaust gas turbocharger D. a compressor, a turbine wheel 答案 D ( p42, para
  3) 在大多数现代柴油机上,采用废气涡轮增压实现空气密度的增加。在涡轮增 压装置中,一个由柴油机排气驱动的涡轮直接和离心压气机相连。 根据题意,压气机增加空气的密度,而与之相连的涡轮驱动压气机

  19.When the air charge contacts with the cylinders and pistons and mixes with the residual gases, it will . A. increase in temperature B. lose its energy partly C. expand and do work D. begin to be compressed 答案 A ( p42, para
  6) 当充入的空气与气缸和活塞接触并与残余的气体混合时, 它的温度就会升高。 contact with 与…接触 residual gas 残余的气体

  20.Usually we take the cooling effect of the air flow through the cylinder during the overlap period as . A. inevitable B. harmful C. helpful D. unacceptable 答案C ( p42, Line
  2) 通常人们认为在气阀重叠期流过气缸的空气,其冷 却效果是有用的。 inevitable 不可避免的 harmful 有害的 unacceptable 不能接受的

  21.In slow speed two-stroke engines, the fresh air entering begins when and stops . A. the inlet port is opened by the up coming piston; the port is closed by the down going piston B. the inlet valve is opened by the down going piston; the inlet valve is closed C. the inlet port is opened by the down going piston; the port is closed by the up coming piston D. the inlet valve is opened 答案C( p42, last line) 在低速二冲程柴油机中,新鲜空气的进入时是在下行活塞打开进 气口开始的,而结束是在该气口被上行活塞关闭。 up coming 上行的 down going 下行的

  22. is arranged for cleaning the lubricating oil in the system and clean oil can be provided from a storage tank. A. A filter. B. A centrifuge C. A distiller D. A generator 答案B(p38, last line) 离心分油机是用来清洁润滑油系统的润滑油,润滑油 可以从存储柜中供来。 filter 滤器 distiller 蒸馏器 generator 发电机

  23. neutralizes the acid conditions and cleanses the rings and grooves. A. The detergency; the alkalinity B. The alkalinity; the detergency C. The inhabitant; the water D. The additives; the distiller water 答案B 发动机汽缸油添加剂中,碱性物质用来中和酸性产物; 清洁剂用来清洁活塞环和环槽。 inhabitant 居住,居民 distiller water 蒸馏水

  24. In addition to lubricating, it assists in forming a gas seal and contains which clean the cylinder liner. A. additives B. water C. grease D. acid solution 答案A (p39, last line of the text) 除了润滑作用外,气缸油有助于形成气封,含有的添加 剂用来清洁缸套。 gas seal气封

  25. The oil cooler is circulated by sea water, which is than the oil. A. with a higher pressure B. at a lower pressure C. no more pressure D. in a greater pressure 答案 B (p39,first line) 润滑油冷却器由海水循环,海水的压力低于润滑油 的压力

  26. The selection of a lubricating oil depends to a great extent on the operating conditions, and . A. the type of coolant B. the design of the engine C. the type of fuel to be burned D. B and C 答案D (p37 para
  3) D 润滑油的选择在很大程度上取决于工作条件、发动机的类 型和燃油的种类,而与冷却剂的种类无关。 to a great extent 很大程度上 depend on 取决于 coolant 冷却剂

  27. In scavenging the incoming air is directed upwards and the exhaust gases travel down and out of the exhaust ports at the opposite side of the cylinder. A.cross B. loop C. aspirate D. uniflow 答案 A ( P43, para
  2) 横流扫气中,新鲜空气向上运动,废气向下并从气 缸另一侧的排气口排出

  28. In scavenging the incoming air passes over the piston crown then rises towards the cylinder head. The exhaust gases are forced before the air passing down and out of exhaust parts located just above the inlet ports. A. loop B. cross C. uniflow D. supercharging 答案 A p43, para
  2) 回流扫气中,



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