Unit two
Civil-Rights Heroes
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Text A
Ferqus M.Bordewich
Background Information
Freedom and Rights
The Civil Rights Movement
Martin Luther King , Jr.
The Underground Railroad in Canada
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Freedom and Rights
Freedom of the individual is considered one of the essential features of western civilization, which itself is sometimes called the Free World. This freedom is often expressed in terms of rights to do certain things or to be treated in a particular way. In Britain and the US the most basic rights include freedom of expression, of choice and of worship.
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The Civil Rights Movement
It refers to the national campaign by African-Americans in the U.S. for equal rights especially in the 1950s and 1960s. The campaign included boycotts, the actions of freedom riders, and in 1963 a march to Washington led by Martin Luther King.
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Martin Luther King , Jr.
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Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 ? April 4, 19
  68) was an American clergyman, activist and prominent leader in the African-American civil rights movement. His main legacy was to secure progress on civil rights in the United States and he is frequently referenced as a human rights icon today. King is recognized as a Saint by two Christian churches.
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Martin Luther King, Jr.
A Baptist minister, King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957, serving as its first president. King's efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington, where King delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech. There, he raised public consciousness of the civil rights movement and established himself as one of the greatest orators in U.S. history.
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Martin Luther King, Jr.
In 1964, King became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his work to end racial segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience and other non-violent means. By the time of his death in 1968, he had refocused his efforts on ending poverty and opposing the Vietnam War, both from a religious perspective.
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Martin Luther King, Jr.
King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee. He was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977 and Congressional Gold Medal in 2004; Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was established as a U.S. national holiday in 19
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I have a dream
Martin Luther King,Jr. ,
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be selfevident, that all men are created equal."
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Josiah Henson (1789-18
  83) Born into slavery in 1789 in Charles County, Maryland, Josiah Henson escaped to Ontario, Canada in 1830 and established a settlement and a laborer's school for other fugitive slaves at Dawn near Dresden in Kent County.
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Josiah Henson's autobiography, The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada (18
  49) is believed to have inspired the title character of Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin (18
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Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Tom’s Cabin, written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, is one of the most famous and popular pieces of Civil War literature.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
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Uncle Tom's Cabin
Drawn from selected pieces of real life anecdotes, Uncle Tom’s Cabin was a book that drew many people into the fight over the institution of slavery. Northerners hailed the book, while southern slaveholders abhorred it.
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Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site
Located near Dresden, Ontario, this cabin was home to Josiah Henson during much of his time in the area. The cabin takes its name from the famous novel, and although it has been moved approximately three times, it has remained on the original Dawn Settlement lands.
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Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site
First opened as a museum in the 1940s, it was moved to its present location in 1964, and restored to an 1850 appearance in 1993?
  94. The Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site is owned by the Ontario Heritage Trust.
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The Underground Railroad in Canada During the 19th century, Canada found itself intellectually front and centre in the fierce battle to abolish slavery, and physically on the front line of the secret routes followed by refugees fleeing enslavement in the American South. This dramatic refugee movement, known as The Underground Railroad, was first designated of national historic significance by the Government of Canada in 19
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The Underground Railroad in Canada
More recently, the Minister of Canadian Heritage has designated persons as well as sites associated with this important chapter of Canadian history, while Parks Canada has been working with the United States National Park Service to make the international connections in this story better known.
Concentrations of Underground Railroad refugee settlers in Ontario circa 18
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