Lesson 1
  1. International trade: can be defined as the exchange of goods and services produced in one country with those produced in another.
  2. International specialization: one country producing more of a commodity than it uses itself and selling the remainder to other countries.
  3. The theory of comparative advantage: holds that even if a country is less efficient than another in the production of both commodities, i.e. it has absolute disadvantage in producing both commodities, there is still a basis for mutually beneficial trade.
  4.国际专业化:international specialization absolute advantage comparative advantage
  5. rich in advantage over point on across borders
  6.Translation: (
  1) 在复杂的经济世界中,没有一个国家可以完全自给自足。 In the complex economic world, no country can be completely self- sufficient. (
  2) 随着制造业和技术的发展,出现了另一个刺激贸易的因素,即国际专业化。 With the development of manufacturing and technology, there arose another incentive for trade, i.e. international specialization. (
  3) 按照比较利益学说,两个贸易伙伴均可从贸易中得到好处。 According to the theory of comparative advantage, both trade partners can benefit from trade. (
  4) 比较利益不是一个静止的概念,一个国家可以通过自己的行动发展某种特定的比较利益。 Comparative advantage is not a static concept; a country may develop a particular comparative advantage through its own actions. (
  5) 比较利益理论已成为现代国际贸易思想的基石。 The idea of comparative advantage has become the cornerstone of modern thinking on international trade. Lesson 2
  1. Economies of scale: that is, the cost advantages of large-scale production.
  2. Tariff barriers: are the most common form of trade restriction.
  3. A tariff: is a tax levied on a commodity when it crosses the boundary of a customs area which usually coincides with the area of a country.
  4. A customs union: a customs area extending beyond national boundaries to include two or more independent nations is called a customs union.
  5. Import duties: are tariffs levied on goods entering an area.
  6. Export duties: are taxes levied on goods leaving an area.
  7. Drawback: refers to duties paid on imported goods that are refunded if the goods are reexported.
  8. Most -favored -nation (MFN) treatment: refers to a tariff treatment under which a country is required to extend to all signatories any tariff concessions granted to any participating country.
  9. Quotas or quantitative restrictions: are the most common form of non-tariff barriers. A quota limits the imports or exports of a commodity during a given period of time.
  10. 需求结构:patterns of demand 生产能力:production capabilities 消费爱好:consumption preference 规模经济:economies of scale 成本优势:cost advantage 大规模生产:large-scale production 关税和配额:tariffs and quotas 外汇:foreign exchange 革新或款式:innovation or style 移民汇款:immigrant remittance
  11. capability at/in cost for/of at reasonable costs levied on take into account without reference to (不针对) make efforts to engage in
  12.Translation: (
  1) 一件商品的成本会因生产规模扩大而减少。 The cost of product will decrease with the expansion of production scale. (
  2) 在实际中,即使完全的专业化在经济上有利,也可能永远不会发生。 In reality, complete specialization may never take place even though it is economically advantageous.
(
  3) 配额或者说数量限制是最常见的关税壁垒。 Quotas or quantitative restrictions are the most common form of non-tariff barriers. (
  4) 有形贸易指货物的进出口贸易,而无形贸易涉及的是国家间的劳务交换。 The visible trade is the import and export of goods, and the invisible trade is the exchange of services between countries. (
  5) 国家从事的贸易种类是多样的、复杂的,往往是有形贸易和无形贸易的混合。 The kinds of trade nations engage in are varied and complex, often a mixture of visible and invisible trade. Lesson 3
  1. Consignment transaction: this means the exporter has to send his goods abroad and will not get payment until the goods are sold. If not sold, the goods can be shipped back.
  2. The draft: also referred to as the bill of exchange, is an unconditional order to a bank or a customer to pay a sum of money to someone on demand or at a fixed time in the future.
  3. Sight draft: calls for immediate payment on presentation to the drawee.
  4. Usance draft: is payable at a later date, e.g.30, 45,60 or 90 days after sight or date.
  5. Documentary draft: the draft is accompanied by the relevant documents such as the bill of lading, the invoice, the insurance policy etc.
  6. (D/P): documents will not be released to the importer until payment is effected.
  7. D/P at sight: requires immediate payment by the importer to get hold of the documents.
  8. D/P after sight: gives the importer a certain period after presentation of the documents, but documents are not released to him until he actually pays for the merchandise.
  9. Documents against acceptance (D/A): documents are handed over to the importer upon his acceptance of the bill of exchange drawn by the exporter. Payment will not be made until a later date. D/A is always after sight.
  10.外汇管制:foreign exchange control 预付现金:cash in advance 记帐贸易:open account 破产:go bankrupt
  11.add up to (amount to) have/gain control over part with (分手) enter into on demand (立即) hand over to (交给) push the sale(促销) tie up money(占压资金)make/effect payment open/issue/establish L/C with bank in one’s favor (以谁为受益人)
  12. Translation: (
  1) 在国际贸易中进出口双方都面临风险,因为总存在对方不履约可能。 In international trade, both the exporter and importer face risks as there is always the possibility that the other party may fail to fulfil the contract. (
  2) 为处理国际贸易中的不同形势,各种支付方法便发展了起来。 Various methods of payment have been developed to cope with different situations in international trade. (
  3) 许多国际交易是通过汇票支付的,汇票是对银行或顾客的支付命令。 A lot of international transactions are paid for by means of the draft, which is an order to a bank or a customer to pay. (
  4) 即期付款交单要求进口商立即付款以取得单据。 Documents against payment at sight requires immediate payment by the importer to get hold of the documents. (
  5) 就出口商而言,即期付款交单比远期付款交单有利,付款交单比承兑交单有利。 So far as the exporter’s interest is concerned D/P at sight is more favorable than D/P after sight, and D/P is more favorable than D/A. Lesson 4
  1. The letter of credit: is a letter issued by a bank at the request of the importer in which the bank promises to pay upon presentation of the relevant documents.
  2. The confirming bank: the bank that adds its confirmation to the credit is called the confirming bank which is undertaken either by the advising bank or another prime bank.
  3. Negotiating bank: if a bank, either nominated by the opening bank or at its own choice, buys the
exporter’s draft submitted to it under a credit, it is called a negotiating bank.
  4. 支付方法:method of payment 发货:dispatch the goods 条款:terms and conditions 保兑信 用证: confirmed letter of credit 分批可转船: partial shipments or transshipment 运载船支: carrying vessel 统一惯例:the uniform customs and practice for documentary credits
  5. match…with (与…一致) at the request of be concerned with (关心) (
  1) 在国际贸易中几乎不可能使付款和实际交货同时进行。 In international trade it is almost impossible to match payment with the physical delivery of the goods. (
  2) 信用证付款方式对买卖双方都提供保障。 The method of payment by the letter of credit offers security to both the seller and the buyer. (
  3) 现代信用证在 19 世纪后半叶开始采用,第一次世界大战后得到了实质性的发展。 Modern credits were introduced in the second half of the 19th century and had substantial development after the First World War. (
  4) 要么因为信用证金额过大,要么因为对开证行不完全信任,出口商有时可能需要保兑的信 用证。 Either because the credit amount is too large, or because he does not fully trust the opening bank, the exporter may sometimes require confirmed letter of credit. (
  5) 信用证的形式、长短、语言和规定各不相同。 Letters of credit are varied in form, length, language and stipulations. Lesson 5
  1. Clean draft: draft not accompanied with shipping documents, for payment are clean credit.
  2. Documentary credit: credits that require shipping documents to be presented together with the draft.
  3. Irrevocable credits: are those that cannot be amended or revoked without the consent of all the parties concerned.
  4. Revocable credit: the credit is a revocable one if such commitments can be altered or even canceled without consulting with the beneficiary.
  5. Confirmed credit: if a credit is confirmed by a bank other than the issuing bank, it becomes a confirmed credit.
  6. Sight credit: is one by which payment can be made upon presentation of the draft and impeccable documents by the beneficiary to the bank, a sight credit calls for a sight draft.
  7. Usance credit: is one by which payment cannot be made until a specific date or a specific time after the date or after sight, this type of credit requires a usance draft.
  8. Transferable credit: if a credit can be transferred by the original beneficiary to one or more parties, it is a transferable credit.
  9. Non-draft credit: there is a modern tendency for payment to be made by presentation of the documents without the formality of drawing and presenting a draft.
  10. Revolving credit: if a credit stipulated that its amount can be renewed or reinstated without specific amendment to the credit being made.
  11. Accompany with/by consult with(和…协商) (
  1) 信用证按其作用、形式和机制分作不同的种类。 Letters of credit are classified into different types according to their function, form, and mechanism. (
  2) 光票信用证主要用于非贸易结算,而在商品贸易中一般使用跟单信用证付款。 Clean letters of credit are mainly used in non-trade settlement, while documentary credits are generally used in commodity trade. (
  3) 在即期信用证情况下,提示汇票和正确无误的单据后便立即付款。 In the case of sight credits, payment can be made promptly upon presentation of draft and impeccable shipping documents. 付款期限可为 30 天, 天甚至可长达 180 天。 A usance 60 (
  4) 远期信用证显然要使用远期汇票。 credit obviously calls for a time draft, and the usance varies from 30,60, to as long as 180 days.
(
  5) 如果信用证可以由原受益人转让给另一个或几个人,那么这种信用证即为可转让信用证。 原受益人称作第一受益人,接受转让的称作第二受益人。 A letter of credit is called transferable if it can be transferred by its original beneficiary to one or more parties. The original beneficiary is called the first beneficiary, and the party (or parties) the credit is transferred to is called the second beneficiary. (
  6) 对于一笔具体交易来说,信用证不一定是最理想的付款方式。缔约双方应根据具体情况作 出最好的选择。 The letter of credit may not be the most ideal method of payment for a particular transaction, and the contracting parties should make their best choice according to the specific conditions. Lesson 6
  1. Contract: is an agreement which sets forth binding obligations of the relevant parties. It is enforceable by law, and any party that fails to fulfill his contractual obligations may be sued and forced to make compensation.
  2. Firm offer: is a promise to sell goods at a stated price. In making a firm offer, mention should be made of the time of shipment and the mode of payment desired n addition to an exact description of the goods including the quantity, quality, specifications, packing, etc. The validity period is indispensable to a firm offer.
  3. 业务范围: business line, force majeure 合 同 正 文: contract proper 通常作法: usual practice
  4. make compensation give rise to disputes (引起争执) binding upon send/make/mail an offer (发盘) in relation to (关于) set up (结构)
  5. Translation: (
  1) 合同依法实施, 未能履行合同义务的一方可能受到起诉, 并被强制做出赔偿。 A contract is enforceable by law, and the party that fails to fulfill his contractual obligations may be sued and forced to make compensation. (
  2) 口头业务协商指的是面对面的直接谈判或通过国际长途电话进行的商谈。 Oral business negotiations refer to face-to -face discussions or those conducted through international truck calls. (
  3) 买方发出的询盘是为了获得拟定购商品的有关信息,它对发出询盘的人无约束力。 Inquiries made by the buyer are to get information about the goods to be ordered, and are not binding on the inquirer. (
  4) 有效期对于确盘是必不可少的。在规定的时间之前,或在被
 

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