Topic Seven Inspection, Insurance & Arbitration (商检, 保险与仲裁)
Commodity Inspection
Commodity inspection refers to the fact that imports and exports are inspected and surveyed to see whether their quality, weight/quantity, packing, etc, are in conformity with the stipulations set forth in business contracts. If there are any disputes between the buyer and the seller, the commodity inspection certificates issued will serve to ascertain where the trouble lies and who is to blame. In international trade, export and import commodity inspections are executed by a third party generally known as surveyor. Some of the surveyors are government organs. Others are run by individuals or trade associations. In our country, the China Commodity Inspection Bureau (CCIB) (中国商品检验局) is the main institution.
Time and venue of commodity inspection are of particular importance. It is a matter of whether the seller or the buyer is entitled to exercise the right of inspection. In general there are three ways an inspection carried out:
  1) Shipping Quality/Weight (Quantity) as final;
  2) Landing Quality/ Weight (Quantity) as final;
  3) Inspection and Reinspection.
Insurance
In international trade, the transportation of goods from the seller to the buyer is generally over a long distance and it has to go through the procedures of transit, loading and unloading, storage, etc. undoubtedly, these goods, either for import or export, are subject to damage or loss. So it is customary to insure the goods against risks of collision, leakage, pilferage, fire and storm, etc. What’s more, they must be insured against these risks in accordance with the mode of transport used, the nature of the goods and the insurance terms stipulated in the contract.
As a practice, it will make plain in a contract as to who will cover the insurance and bear the expenses. If the goods are sold on CIF terms, the seller is responsible for the insuring and the premium. For CIF transaction, the seller usually effects insurance for 110% of the insurance value against risks as per Ocean Marine Cargo Clauses of the PICC or other company. As for FOB or CFR terms, the buyer should arrange the insurance and bear the covering expenses.
Insurance coverage varies in content. The People’s Insurance Company of China provides three basic types: Free from Particular Average (FPA)(平安险), With Particular Average (WPA)(水渍险) and All Risks(一切险). Nevertheless, the terms of insurance must clearly specify what insurance clauses are applicable, for China Insurance Clause (CIC) is different from the Institute Cargo Clauses (ICC)(伦敦保险业协会). In this way, it will avoid any possible misunderstanding with regard to the responsibility of parties concerned.
平安险:指单独海损不负责赔偿。根据国际保险界对单独海损的解释, 它是指部分损失。因此,平安险的原来保障范围只赔全部损失。但在长期实 践的过程中对平安险的责任范围进行了补充和修订,当前平安险的责任范围 已经超出只赔全损的限制。 概括起来,这一险别的责任范围主要包括:
  1、在运输过程中,由于自然灾害和运输工具发生意外事故造成整批货物 的实物的实际全损或推定全损。
  2、由于运输工具发生意外事故而造成的货物全部损失或部分损失。
  3、只要运输工具曾经发生搁浅、触礁、沉没、焚毁等意外事故,不论这 意个事故发生之前或者以后曾在海上遭恶劣气候、雷电、海啸等自然灾害所 造成的被保险货物的部分损失。

  4、在装卸转船过程中,被保险货物一件或数件落海所造 成的全部损失或部分损失。
  5、运输工具遭自然灾害或意外事故,在避难港卸货所 引起被保险货物的全部损失或部分损失。
  6、运输工具遭受自然或灾害或意外事故,需要在中途 的港口或者在避难港口停靠,因而引起的卸货、装货、 存仓以及运送货物所产生的特别费用。
  7、发生共同海损所引起的牺牲、公摊费和救助费用。
  8、发生了保险责任范围内的危险,被保险人对货物采 取抢求、防止或少损失的各种措施,因而产生合理费用。 但是保险公司承担费用的限额不能超过这批被救货物的 保险金额。施救费用可以在赔款金额以外的一个保险金 额限度内承担。
水渍险: 称“单独海损险”,英文原意是指单独海损 负责赔偿,海洋运输货物保险的主要险别之一。 水渍险的责任范围除了包括上列“平安险”的各项责 任外,还负责被保险货物由于恶劣气候、雷电、海啸、 地震、洪水等自然灾害所造成的部分损失。 水渍险:自然灾害+意外事故,导致货物被水淹没, 引起货物的损失。 具体来说还分为是海水浸渍还是雨水浸渍。有的是不 赔雨水浸渍的。就算有水浸渍,还要看那水是引起的货 物损害的直接原因还是间接原因。是间接原因的话,保 险公司是不赔的。
水渍险与平安险的不同: 平安险保的范围广。水渍险保的范围小,比 较细,具体。
一切险的责任范围除包括上列“平安险”和“水 渍险”的所有责任外,还包括货物在运输过程中, 因各种外来原因所造成保险货物的损失。不论全 损或部分损失,除对某些运输途耗的货物,经保 险公司与被保险人双约定在保险单上载明的免赔 率外,保险公司都给予赔偿。 外来原因所致的损失通常有:偷窃提货不着、淡 水雨淋、短量、沾污、渗漏、碰损破碎、串味、 受潮受热、钩损、包装破裂、锈损等。上述外来 原因所致的损失,不论损失程度如何,一切险概 予负责赔偿
Besides, it provides other extraneous risks, which is divided into two groups.
  1) General Additional Risk(一般附加险):偷窃,提货不 偷窃, 偷窃 着险T.P.N.D. (Theft, Pilferage & Non-delivery)淡水雨 着险 淡水雨 淋险F.W.R.D. (Fresh Water &/or Rain Damage)短量险 淋险 短量险 (Risk of Shortage)混杂,玷污险 (Risk of Intermixture 混杂, 混杂 and Contamination)渗漏险 (Risk of Leakage)碰损,破 碰损, 渗漏险 碰损 碎险 (Risk of Clash and Breakage)钩损险 (Hook 钩损险 Damage)受潮受热险 (Damage Caused by Sweating 受潮受热险 and Heating)包装破裂险 (Breakage of Packing)串味险 包装破裂险 串味险 (Risk of Odour)锈损险 (Risk of Rust) 锈损险

  2) Special and Specific Additional Risk(特别和 特殊附加险):交货不到险 (Failure to Delivery) 进口关税险 (Import Duty Risk)舱面险 (On Deck Risk)拒收险 (Rejection Risk)黄曲霉素险 (Aflatoxin Risk) 战争险 (War Risk)罢工险 (Strikes Risk)战争险 的附加费用险 (Additional Expense- War Risk)
The purpose of insurance is to provide compensation for those who suffer from loss or danger that may be incurred. In fact, if goods are properly insured, neither the exporter nor the importer will suffer any loss. In case of any damage or loss, the insured should claim quickly, usually within a month, by providing all the documents required.
Arbitration
In international trade, when no amicable settlement can be made between the buyer and the seller, the disputes may be referred to a tribunal of their own choice. This method of settling disputes is called arbitration, which is regarded as a normal incident of commercial life- a civilized way of resolving the differences of opinions which are bound to arise. Arbitration is a means of settling disputes between the two parties through the medium of a third party, whose decision on the dispute is final and binding.
Some Useful Words and Phrases
upon/on the strength of 根据 open-package visual inspection 开箱检验 the chances are…… 可能……(probably) You cannot count on that. 你不要指望那个 for the buyer’s account 由买方负担费用 at your end/on your side 在你方 in the event of 万一 honor the contract 执行合同 be borne by 由…承担
Useful Sentences on Inspection

  1. 当时你们在我们的质量证书上没有发现任何 毛病,现在却说我们的货物质量低劣,真是荒 唐。 You found no fault whatever with our quality certificate then. But now, you are here to tell us that we sent you goods of inferior quality. It’s ridiculous.

  2. 根据中国商检局检查,残损明显地是在途中 所致,故我方对其不应负责。 According to the survey conducted by the China Commodity Inspection Bureau, the damages were obviously caused during transit, and we should not be responsible for it.

  3. 由于双方同意中国商检局检查后如货物不合格买方 有权拒收货物,我们很遗憾地通知你方我们不得不退 货,费用由你方承担。 Since it is agreed that we have the right to reject the goods when they are disqualified upon examination by CCIB, we regret to inform you that we have to return the goods to you at your expenses (at sb’s expense 由某人付费 ).

  4. 中国商检局以公正,严格检验进出口货物而 闻名。 The China Commodity Inspection Bureau is well-known for its impartiality and rigidity in carrying out the inspection of all in-coming and out-going cargoes.

  5. 买方有权在合同预定期内进行复检,复检费 应由买方承担。 The buyer is entitled to re-inspect within the contracted time and the re-inspection fee shall be borne by the buyers.

  6. 为了避免对合同货物的争执及不必要的索赔, 卖方通常在货物出厂前对其进行仔细的检验。 To avoid disputes and unnecessary claims on contractual goods, the seller conducts careful inspection of the goods before they are sent out from the factory.

  7. 卖方应在规定的时间内到达买方安装现场进行 开箱检验,否则,买方有权要求中国商检局进行 单方面检验。 The seller should arrive at the buyer’s installation site within the stipulated time for open-package visual inspection. Otherwise, the buyer has the right to apply to CCIB to carry out the inspection independently.

  8. 如果货物的质量或数量与合同不符,由谁出具 检验证书呢? Who issues the inspection certificate in case the quality or quantity does not conform with (be in conformity with) the contract?

  9.我们的证明书以盖公章和局长签字为有效。 Our certificates are made valid by means of the official seal and personal chop of the commissioner.

  10.我们的货物只有在符合出口标准后,商检 局才予以放行。 Our goods must be up to export standards before the Inspection Bureau releases them.
Useful Words and Sentences on Insurance
被保险人 (Insured) 投保人 (Applicant) 承保人( 保险人 (Insurer) = 承保人(Underwriter) ) 保险代理人( 保险代理人(Insurance Agent) ) 保险经纪人(Insurance Broker) 保险经纪人 保险公证人(Insurance Surveyor) 保险公证人 保险金额( 保险金额(Insured Amount) ) 保险费(Premium) 保险费

  1. 保险须按发票价格的130%投保一切险。我 们知道你方惯例是只按发票价格加价10%投 保,因此额外保费由我方负担。 The goods should be covered for 130% of invoice value against All Risks. We know that your usual practice is to insure the goods only for 10% above invoice value, therefore the extra premium will be for our account.

  2. 投保仅限于平安险和渗漏险。如需加保其他 险别,额外保费由买方负担。 Insurance to be effected covers F.P.A and Risk of Leakage only. Should additional insurance coverage be required, the extra premium shall be for buyer’s account.

  3. 中国人民保险公司在本着实事求是,公正,合 理的原则,在迅速理赔方面享有很高的声誉。 The PICC enjoys a high prestige in settling claims promptly on the principles of seeking the truth from facts and fairness and reasonableness.

  4. 为安全起见,我方建议贵公司为这批货向保 险公司投保一切险和战争险。 For the sake of safety, we recommend you to insure this shipment with the insurance company against All Risks & War Risk.

  5. 如果发生损失,你方可以在收到货物60天 内向保险公司提出索赔。 Should the damage be incurred, you may, within 60 days after the arrival of the consignment, file/lodge a claim with the insurance company.

  6. 我方报价是CIF价,如果你方想自己投保, 请告知以便我方给你C&F报价。 Our quotation is on CIF basis. If you prefer to have the insurance to be covered at your end, please let us know so that we may quote you C&F prices.

  7. 对于按CIF成交的货物,我们按发票金额 110%根据仓至仓条款投保一切险。 For goods sold on CIF basis, insurance is to be effected by us for 110% of the invoice value against All Risks based on warehouse to warehouse clause.

  8. 若要投保更多的险别,所需的额外保险费由买 方支付。 If broader coverage is required, the extra premium involved will be for buyers’ account.

  9.如果没有客户的特别指示,我们一般给货物 投保平安险。 It’s our usual practice to cover the goods against F.P.A. in the absence of definite instructions from our clients.

  10. 一收到你方的索款通知书,我
 

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