Text A How Dictionaries Are Made
  1. mainly adv. 主要地;大部分地
  1) I don't know what his interests are, because we talk mainly about work when we meet. (我不知道他的兴趣是什么,因为我们见面时主要谈工作。 )
  2) The visitors were mainly students from Mainland China.(来访者多半是来自中国大陆的学生。 )
  3) He quit the job mainly because of health problem.(他辞了那份工用是由于健康原因。)
  2. grammarian n. 语法学家 -ian 或-an 是一个名词后缀,表示 “…地方的人”“精通…的人” , , “信奉…的人” ,如:American (美国人) ,Italian(意大利人) ,Musician(音乐家) ,Historian(历史学家) ,Confucian(儒家) ,Christian (基督徒) grammarian 这个单词是由 grammar 加后缀-ian 构成的。 最高的;极度的,
  3. supreme adj. 最高的;极度的,最主要的
  1)He enjoys supreme power in this country(他在这个国家享有至高无上的权力。 )
  2)They are fulfilling a task of supreme importance.(他们正在完成一项极其重要的任务。 )
  3)No one expected that he would change his idea at the supreme moment. (谁也没料到他会在决定性的时刻改变主意。 ) Supreme court(美国联邦(州)最高法院。 ) The supreme commander (最高统帅) Supreme Soviet (前苏联最高苏维埃) 官方,当局;权利,
  4. authority n. 官方,当局;权利,权威
  1)The government is the highest authority in the country(政府是国家的最高权利机构)
  2)Have you talked it over with the authorities concerned?(你已经跟有关当局讨论过这个问题了吗?)
  3)What authority do you have for entering this house?(你有什么权利进这个屋子?)
  4)Who is the authority on this subject?(谁是这门学科的权威?)
  5)Chinese parents have more authority over their children(中国的父母对孩子更有权威。 ) 惯用法;使用;
  5. usage n. 惯用法;使用;用法
  1)It's difficult to master the usage of these grammatical forms.(要掌握这些语法形式的用法很困难。 ) http//:www.edu-edu.com.cn

  2)That phrase has gone out of usage.(那短语已不再为大家所惯用。 ) Usage 常表示语言等的 “用法” “使用” “惯用法” , , ,我们不能说 incorrect usage,而应该说 incorrect use. 争吵;
  6. dispute v. 争吵;对…提出质疑 争论, n. 争论,争端

  1) They are disputing with each other on/about the ownership of the territory. (他们正在就领土所有权问题进行争论。)(dispute 做不及物动词用)
  2) They disputed how to get the best results. (他们争论如何才能取得最好的效果。(dispute 作及物动 ) 词用)
  3) Your honesty has never been disputed.(没有人怀疑过你的诚实。(dispute 作及物动词用) )
  4) There has been much dispute, and the question is certainly not yet settled (争论很多,所以这个问题当然还没解决。(dispute 作不可数名词用) )
  5) They lived together happily without disputes. ( 他们快乐地生活在一起,没有任何争吵。(dispute 作可数名词用) )
  6) Her ability to do the job is not in dispute.(对她的工作能力人们没有疑问。 ) self
  7. self-assurance n. 自信
  1) His self-assurance was based upon his faith in his own ability(他的自信基于他坚信自己的能力。 )
  2) His self-assurance enabled him to pull through difficulties.(他的自信使他能够渡过困难。 assure v. 使确信;使放心;向…保证;保障
  1)Please assure my parents that I am safe and sound.(请让我父母放心我安全而健康。 )
  2)I can assure you of the reliability of the information.(我可以向你保证这消息是可靠的。 )
  3)This film had assured him a place in movie history.(这部影片保证了他在电影史上的地位。 ) assurance n. 把握;信念;自信;保证
  1) I have full assurance of the feasibility of the plan.(我充分相信这个计划的可行性。 )
  2) "He will be here soon", said Mary with assurance.( “他很快会到这儿” ,玛丽很有把握地说。 )
  3) He gave us the assurance that he wouldn't let out the secret.(他向我们保证他不会泄露秘密。 ) 看待,考虑; 看作为;
  8. regard v. 看待,考虑;把…看作为;尊重
  1) I regard it as difficult.(我认为这事是困难的。 )
  2) They are regarded as the best table-tennis players.(他们被看作为最好的乒乓球运动员。 )
  3) He was regarded highly by his students.(他很受学生们的尊敬。 )
  4) You have to pay regard to public opinions.(你得重视舆论。 ) http//:www.edu-edu.com.cn 关心,重视;尊重; 复数) (复数 n. 关心,重视;尊重; 复数)问候 (

  5) My regard for him grew day by day.(我对他的尊敬与日俱增。 )
  6) Give my regards to your parents.(请代我问候你的父母。 ) 特殊的;独特的,
  9. peuiliar adj. 特殊的;独特的,奇怪的
  1) She expressed her gratitude to him in her own peculiar way.(她用自己独特的方式对他表达谢意。 )
  2) He says this change is not peculiar to this small village.(他说这个变化不是这个小村子所独有的。 )
  3) The young girl was wearing a very peculiar pair of glasses.(那个年轻姑娘戴着一副很古怪的眼镜。 )
  4) She gave him a peculiar look.(她朝他古怪地看了一眼。 ) 发生,出现,
  10. occurrence n. 发生,出现,事件
  1)Researchers are trying hard to find ways to reduce the occurrence of cancer. (研究人员正努力寻求减少癌症发病率的方法。 )
  2) The occurrence took place in 19
  78.(这一事件发生于 1978 年。 ) occur v. 发生;出现;被想到
  1)Don't let the tragedy occur again.(不要让这样的悲剧再次发生。 )
  2)These animals occur in Africa only.(这些动物只在非洲才有。 )
  3)It occurred to me that I didn't ask for his telephone number.(我想起没有要他的电话号码。 )
  4)A good idea occurred to him(他想到了一个好主意。 ) 占用,占领,
  11. occupy v. 占用,占领,使忙碌
  1)The village was occupied by the enemy.(村子被敌人占领了。 )
  2) didn't expect this work would occupy so much of my time. I (我没料到这一工作会占用我这么多时间。 )
  3)His speech occupied 5 minutes.(他的讲话占了五分钟。 )
  4)He is occupied (in) repairing the bike.(他正忙着修理自行车。 )
  5)The fridge occupies a big space in the kitchen.(这台冰箱占了厨房很大的空间。 )
  12. stack n. 整齐的一叠 v. 把…叠成堆

  1) He saw a stack of paper boxes in the room.(他看到房间里有一堆迭着的纸盒。 )
  2)There are a stack of journals on the table.(桌子上有一叠杂志。 )
  3)I have stacks of work to do. (我有一大堆工作要做。 )
  4)It's dangerous to stack the firewood here. (把木柴堆在这儿很危险。)
  5)The shelf was stacked with empty bottles. (架子上堆放着空瓶子。 )
  6)Father stacked up the plates and put them in the sink.(父亲把盘子叠放好,然后放入水池。 ) 说明,阐明; 用图或例子) (用图或例子
  13. illustrate v. 说明,阐明; 用图或例子)说明 ( http//:www.edu-edu.com.cn

  1) Nothing illustrates his selfishness more clearly than his behavior to his wife. (没有什么比他对妻子的行为更能清楚地说明他的自私。 )
  2) He told us a story to illustrate the fact that bad habits die hard. (他通过给我们讲故事来阐明积习难改的事实。 )
  3) Children's books are often beautifully illustrated. (儿童书籍常常有美丽的插图。 )
  4) He gave us an example to illustrate his point. (他给了我们一个例子说明自己的观点。 ) 历史的,历史上的;
  14. historical adj. 历史的,历史上的;
  1)They played an important part in the historical process.(在历史的进程中他们起过重要的作用。 )
  2)The historical event changed him completely. (这一历史事件完全改变了他。 ) 请注意区别 historical 和 historic 这两个形容词。 historical 指历史上存在或发生过的(actually existed,or happened in history)。 historic 指历史上有名的,有历史意义的(important in history)。 a historical event(历史事件)-真实存在于历史上; a historic event (历史性事件)-具有历史意义的; 丢弃,抛弃;
  15. discard v. 丢弃,抛弃;
  1)I don't think it is necessary for them to discard the present assembly line entirely. (我认为他们没有必要完全丢弃现有的流水线。 )
  2)They ate food discarded by the restaurant (他们吃饭店丢弃的食物。 )
  3)How could he discard his old friends?(他怎么能抛弃老朋友呢?) 揭露,泄露;展现,显示;
  16. reveal v. 揭露,泄露;展现,显示;
  1)He didn't reveal what he had felt about her.(他没有透露对她的感觉。 )
  2)David revealed a talent for fixing things.(大卫展现出修理东西的才能。 )
  3)He didn't want to reveal his identity at the time. (那时他不想暴露自己的身份。 ) 影响,
  17. influence n. 影响,v. 影响
  1)The old man had a great influence on the family.(那位老人对家庭的影响很大。 )
  2)His teachings exerted a strong influence on the young people.(他的教导给年轻人施以深刻的影响。 )
  3)The government would use its influence to try to make the talk successful.(政府将以其影响努力使会 谈成功。 )
  4)I didn't want him to influence me in my choice.(我不想让他影响我的选择。 )
  5) Do you think British art is influenced by American painting.(你认为英国的艺术受美国绘画的影响 http//:www.edu-edu.com.cn
吗?) 请注意区别 influence 和 affect 这两个词。 influence 常指间接地、以一种无形的力量去潜移默化地影响人的行为、性格或观点等。 affect 表示对…产生(不良)影响,如:
  1) The economic crisis has seriously affected the export of that country. 经济危机严重影响那个国家的出 ( 口。 )
  2)Too much smoking may affect your lungs.(吸烟过多会影响你的肺。 ) 驱散;消散;
  18. scatter v. 撒;驱散;消散;
  1)Clouds were scattered by the wind.(风起云散。 )
  2)The books scattered on the desk.(书桌上撒满了书。 )
  3)The noise scattered the dogs and chickens(响声使得鸡、狗四散。 )
  4)The Police scattered the demonstrators with tears gas. (警察用催泪弹驱散示威者。 )
  5)Don't scatter your strength. (不要分散精力。) 发明,创造;虚构;
  19. invention n. 发明,创造;虚构;
  1)Telephone is the invention of Alexander Bell.(电话是亚历山大?贝尔发明的。 )
  2)The whole thing was an invention of a New York newspaper.(整件事都是一家纽约报纸虚构的。 ) invent v. 发明、创造、虚构;
  1) When the teacher asked the pupil why he had not come to class, he invented an excuse. (老师问 那个学生为什么没来上课,他编造了一个借口。 )
  2)Edison invented the electric bulb. (爱迪生发明了灯泡。 )
人们普遍认为在每一个词都有其正确的词意。词典和语法书是我们寻求词意和用法的至上权威,但是我 们甚少去询问词典和语法的编著者以何为据。在本篇课文中,作者详细介绍了词典编写的过程,并且强调编 写词典不是对词的意思,建立权威的解释,而是竭尽所能记录下每一个词对其过去的作者而言是何意思。世 界在变化,语言也在变化,我们不得不赋予旧词以新的解释、新的用法,因些词典需要增补新的内容。

  1. …dictionaries and grammars are the supreme authority in matters of meaning and usage. 本句中 in matters of 也可用 in the matter of,意思是“在……方面”“就……而论” , ,如:
  1)It was impossible for them to reach an agreement because they had too many divergences in matters of detail. (他们不可能达成协议,因为在细节问题上,他们有太多的分歧。 ) http//:www.edu-edu.com.cn

  2)He is considered an expert in the matter of intellectual property.(他被看作是知识产权方面的专家。 )
  3)He would suffer heavy losses in matters of money if he continued to believe those dishonest people. (如果他继续相信那些不诚实的人,他会遭受巨大的经济损失。 )
  2. Few people ask by what authority the writers of dictionaries and grammars say what they say. 句子中的 few 表示否定,意思是“很少的,几乎没有的” ,如果用 a few 则表示肯定,意思是“有些, 几个” 。如:
  1) Very few people survived the explosion.(在爆炸中幸存的人很少。 )
  2) Many of us tried but very few succeeded .(我们许多人都试了,但成功者甚少。 )
  3) He will try it a few more times.(他会再试几次。 )
  4) A few of my friends speak English.(我的朋友中有几个人能讲英语。 ) by 在本句



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