1,Professional Lobbyist On Capitol Hill Li Xin: I understand that you've been working on Capitol Hill since 19
  71. Could you briefly talk about the impact of U.S. Congress on Sino-U.S. relations? Mr. Chwat : The U.S. Congress has its legislation and influence on foreign and military policy. Many times, the Administration has its own foreign policy, while the Congress has policy that influences the military and foreign affairs concerning the People's Republic of China. There has been much legislation on China more than I have ever seen in the thirty years that I've been working in the U.S. Congress. There has been no other country impacted by as much legislation coming out from the Senate and the House of Representatives. Li:We Chinese people are peace loving both in history and by tradition, but a few American Congressmen fabricated the so-called China Threat. I wonder how could they get their views through to the American public? Mr. Chwat: Our Congressmen are influenced in several ways. The first way is that they are influenced by lawyers, lobbyists and public relations officials who seek to have them take their positions opposed to the People's Republic of China. In some cases, these lobbyists are aided by Taiwan. The second way that Congressmen are influenced is by their pre-election notions of Chinese policy held by the American people and sometimes many people go to the Congressmen and tell them what they feel. And the third way is that the Congress is impacted by our media. In the case of Washington D.C., there are some media, like Washington Times that greatly influences the congressional thinking and is ideologically conservative about the People's Republic of China. Li: I know that you have an insight into Shakespeare's works and you are the Chairman of an association. In what way does it relate to your current career? Mr.Chwat: Oh, I represent the Shakespeare Birthplace Trust and raise funds for them. This is the Trust that preserves property of where Shakespeare lived and died and strives for funds in the United Kingdom. And for the first time and ever we crested two years ago an American funds of Shakespeare's Birthplace Trust. I have a culture and art practice in my company. Moreover, I represent many foundations in United States in culture and art because I believe that culture and art affects politics as well. Li: As a reporter, I can't establish myself as an expert on lobbying issues in a short time. I have a problem in understanding one of the terms in American law concerning lobbying. That is, a client and a lobby company should not reach an agreement in payment on the premise that the company should succeed. Is that so?
Mr.Chwat: Oh, in America, people who seek to influence the Congress or the government must register as lobbyists and they are paid a fee for work done either on hourly rate or monthly retaining fee. And what you just described is a situation in America that you do something for us, we'll give you more money if you succeed. And that is called contingent fee, and in America my profession doesn't accept contingent contract. It's not proper. Li: Many people of insight believe that China's image has been misrepresented in America by your media coverage. And they suggest that we hire lobby companies and public relations firms to do the correcting job. What do you think of the proposal? Mr.Chwat: I think the People's Republic of China should be cautious and patient. Many years ago, another country was seeking to hire lobbyists and they hired many many lobbyists. The lobbyists they hired became a media issue and also the fact that they hired lobbyists became an issue with the Congress. The Congress became very very upset. It is not awful for the People's Republic of China to seek consulting advices but as far as hiring high profile American lobbyists and public relations firms, I don't know the answer right now, but I think that maybe a little premature. Li: Could you define the two terms-- public relations and lobbyist respectively to our large number of readers? Mr. Chwat: The term " lobbyists" is uniquely American. It was adopted in America in 19th century when individuals stayed in the lobby of the legislature and asked elected officials to come over and talk to them. So there was the term " lobbyists" , because they stay in the lobby. But those people that seek to influence elected officials, legislators in our country have been allowed for 200 years. That profession does not exist anywhere in the world. The closest thing that comes to lobbyists is in London in the Parliament. There are people in the parliament specializing in talking to members of Parliament. Sometimes in America we call the lobbyist public affairs, government relations or other names. Public relations deal with the media, advertising, radio and television, magazines, newspapers, press releases, press conferences and relations with journalists. Public relations does not have to be just in the Congress of America. They can also be for product promotion, or for economic benefit of a corporation, or to sell a new product. So public relations stand a very broad category in America. 1,国会山的职业游说家 李昕:我听说您自 1971 年起就在国会上工作,您能简要谈一下美国国会对中美 关系的影响吗? 施瓦特先生:美国国会对外交和军事政策有其立法和影响.多数情况下,政府有 其自己的外交政策.而国会则对涉及中华人民共和国的军事及外交事务制定政
策,施加影响.我在国会工作 30 年来从未见过这么多有关中国的立法,再没有 其他国家受到这么多参众两院制定的立法影响了. 李:我们中国人民从传统上和历史上都热爱和平,但少数美国国会议员制造所谓 的中国威胁论.我不明白,他们是怎么让美国大众相信的? 施:我们的国会议员受几方面的影响.第一方面是他们受律师,游说人士和公关 官员的影响,这些人希望国会议员接受他们的反华立场.在某些情况下,这些游 说人士是受台湾资助的. 第二方面对他们的影响,是他们当选议员前美国人所持对华政策的见解;有时, 许多人就直接去见国会议员,并告诉他们自己的想法. 第三方面是国会受我们媒体的影响.就华盛顿特区而言,有一些媒体,如《华盛 顿时报》等,极大地影响了国会的看法,而其在意识形态上对中华人民共和国是 很保守的. 李:我听说您对莎士比亚的作品很有见地,而且担任一协会的主席.这跟您目前 的职业有何关联呢? 施:哦,我是莎士比亚诞生地信托基金的代理人,并为他们筹资.这个信托基金 保护莎士比亚生活和去世的那宗地产,并在英国为其筹集资金.我们于两年前首 次在美创立了莎士比亚诞生地信托基金的美国基金管理机构. 我公司开办一项文 化和艺术业务.而且,我还代表了美国许多家文化和艺术基金会,因为我相信文 化和艺术也影响政治. 李:作为记者,我不可能使自己在短时间内成为游说议题的专家.我在理解一条 有关游说的美国法律规定时有个问题, 即客户和游说公司不得以成功为前提达成 付款协议.是这样的吗? 施:哦,在美国,想对国会或政府施加影响的人必须注册以成为说客,他们所做 的工作会以小时付酬或以月计付聘用定金.而你刚才所说的情形在美国是这样 的,你为我做某事,如果你做成,我们会多付钱.这被称为成功酬金.而在美国, 我们这个行当不接受成功合同,那是不妥当的. 李:许多有识之士认为,中国的形象在美国被你们的媒体报道歪曲了.他们建议 雇游说公司和公关事务所来做纠正的工作.您认为这个建议怎么样? 施:我认为中华人民共和国需谨慎耐心些.许多年前,有个国家想要雇佣说客, 他们请了许许多多说客.结果他们雇的说客成了媒体争议的话题,而且他们雇佣 说客一事也成了国会的争论议题.国会对此极为烦恼.中华人民共和国想寻求一 些咨询意见,那是无可非议的,但至于引人注目地公开雇佣美国说客和公关事务 所,我目前还不知是否可行,我觉得或许有点儿为时过早. 李:您可以为我刊广大读者分别定义一下公共关系和说客这两个词吗?
施:"说客"一词是美国所独有的.该词在美国是 19 世纪被采用的,当时一些人 在议会的大堂里邀请当选的官员过来并与他们交谈.由此就产生了"lobbyist"(说 客)一词,因为他们待在 lobby(大堂)里.但那些设法影响当选官员,国会议员的 人在我国获准从事这项工作已有 200 年了.在世界其他地方并没有这一职业.与 说客这个职业最接近的做法是在伦敦的议会里.在议会里有人专门与议员交谈. 有时,在美国我们以公共事务,政府关系或别的名称来称呼说客. 公共关系是指与媒体打交道,包括广告,广播和电视,杂志,报纸,新闻发 布,记者招待会及与记者的关系.公共关系并不仅限于在美国的国会里.它们还 可以为产品促销,为某公司的经济利益或推销新产品做工作.所以,公共关系在 美国涵盖的范围很广.
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