英语听力 Boiling Water Under Boiling Clouds
You may be surprised to hear that it’s actually easier to boil water on stormy days than it is when the weather is clear and sunny. Can you guess why? The reason is that the boiling point of water changes slightly in response to air pressure. High air pressure, found on sunny, clear days, means just what it sounds like: crowded air molecules are pressing down on the water in the pot, just like they press on the stove, the floor and on you. This causes the molecules that make up the water to be squeezed more tightly together, which means that the steam bubbles trying to form at the bottom of the pot have a harder job pressing outward. It’s somewhat like trying to stretch your arms in a crowded room: the more crowded it is, the harder it will be for you to stretch without being bumped back again by someone else. On stormy days, the air pressure is relatively low; you have probably heard the weather person refer to a “low pressure system” moving in just before it rains. When there is low air pressure the water in your pot is not compressed as much by the air around it. Because it’s easier to displace that water, the bubbles of steam form more easily at the bottom of the pot; and voila ? boiling begins. There is a catch, however. Although the boiling point of water ? 212 degrees ? is reduced on stormy days, and thus water boils faster, the temperature of that boiling water is also lower. That means it will actually take LONGER to cook things ? an effect that more than counters the ten seconds or so you save in waiting for the boil.
译文: 你或许会觉得惊奇,在暴风雨的天气比在晴朗的天气更容易把水烧开。 你猜猜这是为什么呢? 原因就是水的沸点根据气压有细微的变化。 高压一般出现在晴好的天气, 就如听起来的那样: 拥挤的空气分子挤压在锅里的水上空,就像它们挤压在炉子,地板以及你的身上一样。这让 构成水的水分子挤压的更紧, 也就意味着在壶底形成的气泡更难向外冒。 这就像在一个狭窄 的屋子里,你试图伸展四肢:它越狭窄,你越难在不被什么东西撞回来的情况下伸展。
在暴风雨的天气,气压相对较低,你或许听到过天气预报员报道下雨之前,“低压系统”正 在进入。当低压存在的时候,壶里的水不会像周围的空气那样被挤压,所以水之间的更替的 更迅速,蒸汽气泡在壶底也更容易形成,瞧-已经开了。 但是仍有一个不好之处。尽管水的沸点-212 度-在暴风雨天气会降低,水会烧开的比较快, 可是开水的温度也会相对较低。也就是说煮东西的时间就会变长-这就是在等待水开过程中 节约下来的那十秒时间而造成的一种负面效应。
Glass Beaches
All over the country, beach managers have tried to make beaches safer by discouraging the use of glass bottles on the sand. Florida, however, has actually begun using glass as sand at the beach as a way to keep its shores friendly to both tourists and wildlife. A stable beach is important for human use and for many wildlife populations. Each year, the ocean surf causes substantial erosion of these beaches as it carries tons of sand with it back into the ocean. The most common way to restore the sand lost to erosion is to pipe it from the ocean floor back up to the beach. This method, though, is expensive and does damage to the fragile ecosystems on the ocean floor. In the search for an alternative to this costly and destructive piping method, scientists turned to crushed glass. The glass was made into pieces roughly two-hundredth-of-an-inch (.
  02) in size that were similar in shape and texture to ordinary sand. The glass sand was then tested to make sure that it would not only look like sand, but would also behave like sand in the natural environment. Researchers found that the glass sand was very similar to ordinary sand in terms of heat, moisture and oxygen levels. They also determined that the glass sand was suitable for those who inhabit the beach, from microorganisms to crabs and turtles. Thanks to these scientists, today you can visit one of these lovely, sparkling beaches and even build a glass castle in the sand.
译文: 在全国范围内,为了安全起见,主管沙滩的经理们都不鼓励把玻璃洒用于沙滩。 然而佛罗里达州,开始用玻璃来代替沙撒在海滩上,以此来保护游客和野生动植物。
一个稳定的沙滩对于人们的使用和许多野生动物种群来说是非常重要的。 每年, 海洋冲浪都 会引起海滩的严重侵蚀, 因为它会带着好几吨的沙重回大海。 储存沙最常见的方法就是用管 子把它从海底重新运回海岸。 这种方法不仅花费昂贵, 而且也容易破坏海底脆弱的生态系统。 在寻找可以代替这种昂贵的和破坏性的管道方法的过程中, 科学家们转向了粗碎玻璃。 这种 玻璃被做成
  0.0127 厘米大小的类似于普通沙子的质地和形状的样子。他们对玻璃沙子进行 测试,确保它不仅看起来像沙子,而且在自然环境中也能像自然沙子那样发挥作用。 研究人员发现,玻璃沙子在热量,湿度和含氧量方面都非常类似于普通的沙子。他们还发现 玻璃沙子对于在海边居住的生物也同样适合,从微生物到螃蟹,再到海龟。多亏了这些科学 家,今天你可以参观到这些可爱的,闪闪发亮的海滩,甚至于矗立于海滩中一座玻璃城堡。
Haven’t We Met
You wake up one morning to find a strange man standing in your kitchen; worse than that, he seems to have made himself completely at home. Someone’s child is sitting in the living room watching television, on which somebody or other is giving a speech while standing next to a bust of some old guy. Who are these people? And where’s your family? If you suffered from the neurological disorder called “facial agnosia,” a twilight-zone style experience of this sort might be a reality. Facial agnosia typically occurs to people who have received damage to the right hemisphere of the brain due to stroke or injury. People with facial agnosia lose the ability to recognize even the most familiar faces: in this case a husband and daughter, the president of the United States and a bust of Abraham Lincoln. In severe cases an examining physician will be able to hold up a photograph of him or herself and, seated in front of the patient with facial agnosia, ask if they recognize this person ? to no avail. What’s especially interesting to researchers about this condition is its specificity. Visual ability itself is not damaged, and the person with facial agnosia can still recognize anything else ? except a face. Indeed, they can still describe faces very accurately, but only in the way one describes an object: “He needs a shave. He has droopy eyes. He has a small scar,” but never “Wait a minute ? this is my high school yearbook picture.” Facial agnosia strongly suggests the existence of a mechanism in the brain devoted specifically to recognizing individuals we’ve seen before, a mechanism thought to exist in many other animals and even some insects.
译文:
你一早醒来,发现你的厨房里站着一个陌生人。更糟糕的是,他似乎像在自己家一样随意。 不知谁家的孩子正坐在客厅看电视, 电视里播放着一个人站在一位老者的半身像旁高声演讲 着。这些人是谁?你的家人去哪儿了? 如果你患上了一种脑神经失调的面孔失认症, 那么像这样模糊不清的“过渡”式的经历或许 是一个事实。 面孔失认症常出现于人们大脑的右半球被打击或损伤后。 患有面孔失认症的人 会失去辨认面孔的能力,即使是最熟悉的人也不列外:比如丈夫或者女儿,美国的总统或者 亚伯拉罕林肯的半身像。在严重的情况下,检查的医生会拿着一张自己的照片,坐在面孔失 认症患者的前面,询问他们是否认识这个人,但是完全不起作用。 对于研究者来说这种情况最有趣的就是它的特殊性。 视觉能力本身没有损坏, 面孔失认症患 者仍然能够辨别别的事物-除了脸。事实上,他们仍然可以非常准确地描述面孔,但是就像 描述物体似的。“他需要刮胡子,他有双下垂的眼睛,他有一个小疤痕”。但是从不会听到 “等一下-这是我高中的毕业照。”面孔失认症患者暗示了人类大脑里存在着一种专门用于 辨认见过的人的机制,这种机制也被认为存在于别的动物甚至一些昆虫中。
No Need to Panic
It’s an ordinary day. You may be entirely relaxed, settling down to watch some TV. Suddenly you begin to feel scared. Everything around you is becoming unreal. Your heart is racing, your head spinning, your hands tingling. An overwhelming sense of despair and anguish hits you like a wave. What on earth is going on? If you have had an experience like this, it’s possible you were having a “panic attack.” Some people experience panic attacks in tense situations, such as before giving a speech. For others it comes completely (
  1)out of the blue But panic attack is a very real condition, and not blue. out at all the same thing as just “getting flustered.” What causes it? Panic attack begins in the oldest parts of our brain. Before we had evolved rational thought, we still needed to be able to survive in the world. The ability to either fight or flee from a dangerous situation is perhaps the most basic behavior required of any animal. Panic attacks occur when the bodily systems responsible for dealing with dangerous situations (
  2)kick in at the wrong time. There is no danger in kick relaxing on your couch, and no real danger in giving a speech. But in some people, the “fight or flight” responses can be triggered accidentally. Heart rate increases, breathing becomes shallow, adrenaline shoots to your arms. These are useful responses to have, if you really are in danger.
For people with panic attack, though, they can be both confusing and terrifying. Several different therapies now exist for panic attack, from anti-anxiety medications to behavior modification. So take heart ?there’s no need to panic.
译文: 这是平常的一天。你放松身心,专心地看着电视。 突然你感到恐惧。身边的所有事物都变得不真实。你的心跳加速,天旋地转,手臂发麻。一 种歇斯底里的绝望和痛苦像海浪一样侵袭着你。这到底是怎么回事? 如果你有类似的经历, 很可能你患有“惊恐发作”症。 一些人在紧张的情况下会经历惊恐发 作,例如在演讲之前。有些则会在完全意外的情况下经历。但是惊恐发作是一种真实存在的 健康问题,与所说的心慌完全不同。那么这是什么引起的呢? 惊恐发作始于我们大脑里最古老的部分。 在我们形成理性思维之前, 我们仍然需要在在世界 上生存。 战斗和逃离危险或许是人和动物都必备的最基本的能力。 当身体系统对在不适当的 时间里发生的危险情况作出反应时就会产生惊恐发作。 在沙发上休息并不危险, 演讲也并不 是真的危险。但是对于一些人来说,会意外地触发他们“战斗还是逃走”的心理反应。心跳 加速,呼吸困难,肾上腺素直冲手臂。如果你真的处于危险情况之下,这些都是很有利的反 应。然而对于有惊恐发作的人来说,他们会感到混乱和恐惧。 针对惊恐发作,有好几种不同的治疗方法。从抗焦虑药到行为矫正。所以,鼓起勇气-没必 要恐慌。 Notes: (
  1)out of the blue 突然地;意外地 There are so many things out of the blue in our life. 生活就是有那么多的出乎意料。 (
  2)kick in 踢开;支付;开始生效;腿打水游进;死亡 As mentioned earlier, telepathy is most likely to kick in under circumstances of emergency. 正如前面提到的,心灵感应很可能要在危急关头才会出现。
英语四级精精听 1
In phone booths in the U. S., there are usually directions for using the telephone. All phone numbers have seven digits though letters and numbers are sometimes used in combination。There may be phonebooks or directories under the telephone.
There are two main kinds of long distance calls: dial-direct and operator-assisted. You can make dial direct calls in most parts of the U.S. Look at the white page directory for a long distance rates or more or more information on making a long distance cost。 Or you can call the operator for help. If you need a phone number that is not in your phone book, call Directory Assistance. To make a long distance call, you’ll need to know the three-digit area code. Dial 1 plus the area code plus the number, and an operator or a computer voice will tell you how much money to deposit. On operator assisted calls, the operator will ask you to deposit more money before your time is up. On dail direct calls, you will be cut off at the end of the time you've paid for unless you put more money in the slot
英语四级精精听 2 英语四级精精听
Before the 20th century,the horse provided day to day transportation in the United State.Tra
 

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