名词的所有格 名词的所有格 在英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系, 带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格, 如:a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下:
  1) 单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有 s,也要加"'s",如 the boy's bag 男孩的书包, men's room 男厕所。
  2) 若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加"'",如:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。
  3) 凡不能加"'s"的名词, 都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系, 如: title of the the song 歌的名字。
  4) 在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时, 名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名 词,如:the barber's 理发店。
  5) 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'。 如:John's and Mary's room(两间) John and Mary's room(一间)
  6) 复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。 如:a month or two's absence 不定冠词的用法 冠词是虚词, 本身不能单独使用, 也没有词义, 它用在名词的前面, 帮助指明名词的含义。 英语中的冠词有三种, 一种是定冠词 (the Definite Article) 另一种是不定冠词 , (the Indefinite Article) ,还有一种是零冠词(Zero Article) 。 不定冠词 a (an)与数词 one 同源,是"一个"的意思。a 用于辅音音素前,一般读作[e], 而 an 则用于元音音素前,一般读做[en]。
  1) 表示"一个",意为 one;指某人或某物,意为 a certain。 A Mr. Ling is waiting for you.
  2) 代表一类人或物。 A knife is a tool for cutting with. Mr. Smith is an engineer.
  3) 词组或成语。 a little / a few / a lot / a type of / a pile / a great many / many a / as a rule / in a hurry / in a minute / in a word / in a short while / after a while / have a cold / have a try / keep an eye on / all of a sudden 定冠词的用法 定冠词 the 与指示代词 this,that 同源,有"那(这)个"的意思,但较弱,可以和一个名词连 用,来表示某个或某些特定的人或东西。
  1)特指双方都明白的人或物: Take the medicine. 把药吃了。
  2)上文提到过的人或事: He bought a house. I've been to the house. 他买了幢房子。我去过那幢房子。
  3)指世上独一物二的事物: the sun, the sky, the moon, the earth
  4)单数名词连用表示一类事物,如:the dollar 美元; the fox 狐狸;或与形容词或分词连用,表示一类人:the rich 富人; the living 生者。
  5)用在序数词和形容词最高级,及形容词 only, very, same 等前面:
Where do you live? I live on the second floor. 你住在哪?我住在二层。 That's the very thing I've been looking for. 那正是我要找的东西。
  6)与复数名词连用,指整个群体: They are the teachers of this school.指全体教师) They are teachers of this school. (指部分教师)
  7)表示所有,相当于物主代词,用在表示身体部位的名词前: She caught me by the arm.. 她抓住了我的手臂。
  8)用在某些由普通名词构成的国家名称、机关团体、阶级、等专有名词前: the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国 the United States 美国
  9)用在表示乐器的名词之前: She plays the piano. 她会弹钢琴。
  10) 用在姓氏的复数名词之前,表示一家人: the Greens 格林一家人 (或格林夫妇)
  11) 用在惯用语中: in the day, in the morning (afternoon, evening), the day after tomorrow, the day before yesterday, the next morning, in the sky (water,field,country) in the dark, in the rain, in the distance, in the middle (of), in the end, on the whole, by the way, go to the theatre 代词 代词是代替名词的一种词类。大多数代词具有名词和形容词的功能。英语中的代词,按其意 义、特征及在句中的作用分为:人称代词、物主代词、指示代词、自身代词、相互代词、疑 问代词、关系代词和不定代词八种。 一、人称代词是表示"我"、"你"、"他"、"她"、"它"、 "我们"、"你们"、"他们"的词。人称代词有人称、数和格的变化,见下表: 数 单数 复数 格 主格 宾格 主格 宾格 第一人称 I me we us 第二人称 you you you you he him they them 第三人称 she her they them it it they them 如:He is my friend. 他是我的朋友。 It's me. 是我。 二、 物主代词表示所有关系的代词,也可叫做代词所有格。物主代词分形容性物主代词 和名词性物主代词二种,其人物和数的变化见下表。 数 单数 复数 人称 第一 第二 第三 第一 第二 第三 人称 人称 人称 人称 人称 人称 形容词性 my your his/her its our your/their 物主代词 名词性 mine yours his/hers its ours yours/theirs 物主代词 如: I like his car. 我喜欢他的小汽车。
Our school is here,and theirs is there. 我们的学校在这儿,他们的在那儿。 三、 指示代词表示"那个"、"这个"、"这些"、"那些"等指示概念的代词。指示代词有 this, that,these,those 等。 如: That is a good idea. 那是个好主意。 四、 表示"我自己"、"你自己"、"他自己"、"我们自己"、"你们自己"和"他们自己"等的代 词,叫做自身代词,也称为"反身代词"。 如: She was talking to herself. 她自言自语。 五、 表示相互关系的代词叫相互代词,有 each other 和 one another 两组,但在运用中, 这两组词没什么区别。 如: They love each other. 他们彼此相爱。 六、 不是指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词。 常见的不定代词有 a
  11, both, each, every 等,以及含有 some-,any-,no-等的合成代词,如 anybody, something,no one。这 些不定代词大都可以代替名词和形容词,在句中作主语、宾语、表语和定语, 但 none 和 由 some, any, 等构成的复合不定代词只能作主语、 no 宾语或表语; every 和 no 只能作定语。 如: Do you have a car? --你有一辆小汽车吗? Yes,I have one. --是的,我有一辆。 I don't know any of them. 他们,我一个也不认识。 七、 疑问代词有 who,whom,whose,what 和 which 等。在句子中用来构成特殊疑问句。 疑问代词都可用作连接代词,引导名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句) 如:Tell me who he is. 告诉我他是谁。 八、 关系代词有 who,whom,whose,that,which,as 等,可用作引导从句的关联词。 它们在定语从句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语等;另一方面它们又代表主句中为定语从句 所修饰的那个名词或代词(通称为先行词) 。 如: He is the man whom you have been looking for. 他就是你要找的那个人。 动名词作主语、 动名词作主语、宾语和表语
  1)作主语 Fighting broke out between the South and the North. 南方与北方开战了。
  2)作宾语 a. 动词后加动名词 doing 作宾语 V. + doing sth admit 承认 appreciate 感激,赞赏 avoid 避免 complete 完成 consider 认为 delay 耽误 deny 否认 endure 忍受 enjoy 喜欢 escape 逃脱 prevent 阻止 fancy 想象 finish 完成 imagine 想象 mind 介意 postpone 推 迟 practise 训 练 recall 回 忆 resist 抵抗 resume 继续 risk 冒险 suggest 建 议 face 面 对 include 包 括 understand 理解 forgive 宽恕 keep 继续 举例: (
  1) Would you mind turning down your radio a little, please? (
  2) The squirrel was lucky that it just missed being caught.
detest 讨厌 miss 想念 resent 讨 厌 stand 忍 受
b. 词组后接 doing admit to prefer…to be used to lead to devote oneself to to stick to be busy look forward to to 为介词) no good, no use, It's worth…, as well as, can't help, It's no use /good be tired of be fond of be capable of be afraid of be proud of think of / about hold off put off keep on insist on count on / upon set about be successful in good at take up give up burst out prevent … from…
  3)作表语 Her job is washing,cleaning and taking care of the children.
object
省 to 的动词不定式
  1) 情态动词 ( 除 ought 外,ought to):
  2) 使役动词 let, have, make:
  3) 感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice , observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后作宾补, 省略 to。 注意:在被动语态中则 to 不能省掉。 I saw him dance. =He was seen to dance. The boss made them work the whole night. =They were made to work the whole night.
  4) would rather,had better:
  5) Why… / why not…:
  6) help 可带 to,也可不带 to, help sb (to) do sth:
  7) but 和 except:but 前是动词 do 时,后面出现的动词用不带 to 的动词不定式。
  8) 由 and, or 和 than 连接的两个不定式,第二个 to 可以省去:
  9) 通常在 discover, imagine, suppose, think, understand 等词后,可以省去 to be: He is supposed (to be) nice. 他应该是个好人。 举例: He wants to move to France and marry the girl. He wants to do nothing but go out. 比较: He wants to do nothing but go out. He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine. 典型例题
  1) I usually go there by train. Why not by boat for a change? A. to try going B. trying to go C. to try and go D. try going 答案:D. why not 后面接不带 to 的不定式,因此选 D。
  2) Paul doesn't have to be made . He always works hard. A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning 答案:B. make 后接不带 to 的动词不定式,当其用于被动时,to 不可省略。
be afraid doing/to do be afraid to do 不敢,胆怯去做某事,是主观上的原因不去做,意为"怕"; be afraid of doing 担心出现 doing 的状况、结果。 doing 是客观上造成的,意为"生怕,恐 怕"。 She was afraid to step further in grass because she was afraid of being bitten by a snake. 她生怕被蛇咬着,而不敢在草丛中再走一步。 She was afraid to wake her husband. 她不敢去叫醒她丈夫。 She was afraid of waking her husband. 她生怕吵醒她丈夫。 独立主格 (一) 独立主格结构的构成: : 名词(代词)+现在分词、过去分词; 名词(代词)+形容词; 名词(代词)+副词; 名词(代词)+不定式; 名词(代词) +介词短语构成。 (二) 独立主格结构的特点:
  1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。
  2)名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定 式,介词等是主谓关系。
  3)独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。 举例: The test finished, we began our holiday. = When the test was finished, we began our holiday. 考试结束了,我们开始放假。 The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow. = After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow. 总统被谋杀了,举国上下沉浸在悲哀之中。 Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow. 如果天气允许,我们明天去看你。 This done, we went home. 工作完成后,我们才回家。 The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier. 会议结束后,每个人都想早点回家。 He came into the room, his ears red with cold. 他回到了房子里,耳朵冻坏了。 He came out of the library, a large book under his arm. 他夹着本厚书,走出了图书馆 With 的复合结构作独立主格 表伴随时,既可用分词的独立结构,也可用 with 的复合结构。 with +名词(代词)+现在分词/过去分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语
举例: He stood there, his hand raised. = He stood there, with his hand raise. 典型例题 The murder was brought in, with his hands behind his back。 A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied 答案 D. with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构。当分词表示伴随状况时,其主语常 常用 with 来引导。由于本句中名词"手"与分词"绑"是被动关系,因此用过去分词,选 D. 注意:
  1) 独立主格结构使用介词的问题: 当介词是 in 时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词) ,也不用复数。 但 with 的复合结构不受此限制 A robber burst into the room, knife in hand. ( hand 前不能加 his)。
  2) 当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,及物动词用现在分 词,不及物动词用过去分词。 He lay there, his teeth set, his hand clenched, his eyes looking straight up. 典型例题: Weather, we'll go out for a walk. A permitted B permitting C permits D for permitting 答案 B. 本题中没有连词,它不是复合句,也不是并列句。 句中使用了逗号,且 we 小 写,可知其不是两个简单句。能够这样使用的只有独立主格或 with 的复合结构。据此判断, 本句中使用的是独立结构, 其结构为:名词+分词。 由于 permit 在这里翻译为'天气允许', 表主动,应用现在分词,故选 B。 如果不会判断独立结构作状语的形式,不妨将句子改为条件句,例如本句改为 If weather permits, we'll go out for a walk. 然后将 if 去掉,再将谓语动词改为非谓语动词即可。 感叹句结构 感叹句通常有 what, how 引导,表示赞美、
 

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