语法复习四:定语从句
(一)定语从句一般由关系代词和关系副词引导

  1、关系代词:who, whom, whose, which, that, as
  2、关系副词:when, where, why 关系代词和关系副词必须位于从句之首,主句先行词之后,起着连接先行词和从句的作用, 同时在从句中又充当句子成分。 e.g. She is the girl who sings best of all.(关系代词 who 在从句中作主语) The comrade with whom I came knows French.(whom 在从句中作介词 with 的宾语)
  3、关系代词和关系副词的用法:
  1)当先行词为人时用 who 作主语,whom 作宾语;
  2)当 先行词为物或整个句子时用 which ,可作主语或宾语;
  3)先行词为人、物时用 that ,可作主语 或宾语;
  4)whose 用作定语,可指人或物;
  5)关系副词 when(指时间,在定语从句中作时间 状语,where(指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语) ,why(指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语) 。
(二)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句

  1、限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不完整,甚至不合逻辑。 e.g. I was the only person in our office who was invited.(去掉定语从句,意思就不完整)
  2、非限制性定语从句:从句对先行词关系不密切,去掉定从句,意思仍然完整。形式上用 逗号隔开,不能 that 用引导。 e.g. Tom’s father, who is over sixty, still works hard day and night. (who 引导非限制性定语从句, 整个句子可分成两句来翻译)
(三)使用定语从句时特别注意的几个问题 使用定语从句时特别注意的几个问题
  1、that 与 which 的区别。

  1)用 that 而不用 which 的情况:①先行词为不定代词 all, anything, nothing, …;②先行词有 最高级修饰,有序数词修饰;③先行词有 only, very, any 等词修饰;④先行词既有人又有物时。 e.g. There is nothing that can prevent him from doing it. 没有什么能阻止他不干那件事。 The first place that they visited in Guilin was Elephant Trunk Hill. 在桂林他们所参观的第 一个地方是象鼻山。 This is the best film that I have ever seen. 这部电影是我看过的最好的一部。 Mr Smith is the only foreigner that he knows. 史密斯先生是他认识的唯一的外国人。
  2)用 which 而不用 that 的情况:①引导非限制性定语从句;②代表整个主句的意思;③介 词 + 关系代词。 e.g. He had failed in the maths exam, which made his father very angry. 他数学考试没有及格, 这使他的父亲很生气。 This is the room in which my father lived last year. 这是父亲去年居住过的房子。
  3)as 引导定语从句时的用法 ①as 引导限制性定语从句通常用于 the same … as, such … as 结构中。 e.g. I want the same shirt as my friend’s. 我要一件跟我朋友一样的衬衫。 Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in China. 我们车间使用的这种机器 是中国制造的。 ②as 引导非限制性定语从句既可放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后,用来修饰整个句子。 21
通常用下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。 e.g. As I expected, he got the first place again in this mid-term examination. 正如我所预料的那 样,他在这次期中考试中又获得了第一名。
  3)as 引导非限制性定语从句时与 which 的区别 ①当主句和从句语义一致时,用 as;反之,用 which 来引导非限制性定语从句。 e.g. He made a long speech, as we expected. He made a long speech, which was unexpected. ②当非限制定语从句为否定时,常用 which 引导。 e.g. Tom drinks a lot every day, which his wife doesn’t like at all.

  2. 关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数还是用复数应由先行词决定。
e.g. The man who lives downstairs speaks English fluently. 住在楼下的那个人英语说得很流 利。 The students who are in Grade Three are going to climb the hill tomorrow.

  3. 定语从句有时不直接紧靠先行词,中间由一个定语、状语或谓语隔开。
e.g. There is an expression in his eyes that I can’t understand.
  4. 引导定语从句的关系副词有时可以用“介词 + which”来代替。 e.g. October 1, 1949 was the day on which ( = when ) the People’s Republic of China was founded.

  5. 当定语从句中谓语动词是带介词或副词的固定短语动词时,短语动词的各个固定 部分不要拆开。
e.g. The sick man whom she is looking after is her father.

  6. 介词在关系代词前,只能用 which 和 whom,且不能省略;介词在句尾,关系代词 可有 which, that, whom, 口语中也可用 who,且可省略。
e.g. The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about has come to school.
练习、 练习、定语从句
一、把下列每对句子合并成含有定语从句的主从复合句:

  1. The fan is on the desk. You want it.
  2. The man is in the next room. He brought our textbooks here yesterday.
  3. The magazine is mine. He has taken it away.
  4. The students will not pass the exam . They don’t study hard.
  5. The woman is our geography teacher. You saw her in the park.
  6. The letter is from my sister. I received it yesterday. 22

  7. The play was wonderful. We saw it last night.
  8. The train was late. It was going to Nanning.
  9. The boy is my brother. He was here a minute ago.
  10. The tree is quite tall. He is climbing it.
  11. Here is the girl. Her brother works in this shop.
  12. That’s the child. We were looking at his drawing just now.
  13. This is the boy. His sister is a famous singer.
  14. I want to talk to the boys. Their homework haven’t been handed in.
  15. Is that the woman? Her daughter is in my class.
  16. He used to live in a big house. In front of it grew many banana trees.
  17. They passed a factory. At the back of the factory there were rice fields.
  18. The soldier ran to the building. On the top of it flew a flag.
  19. In the evening they arrived at a hill. At the foot of the hill there was a temple.
  20. She came into a big room. In the middle of it stood a large table.
二、 根据句子意思, 在第一个空白处填入介词, 在第二个填入关系代词 whom 或 which:

  1. The person I spoke just now is the manager that I told you about.
  2. The pencil he was writing broke.
  3. Wu Dong, I went to the concert, enjoyed it very much.
  4. The two things Marx was not sure were the grammar and some of the idioms of English.
  5. Her bag, she put all her books, has not been found.
  6. The stories about the Long March, this is one example, are well written. 23
三、选择填空:

  1. The man visited our school yesterday is from London. A. who B. which C. whom D. when
  2. The woman is talking to my mother is a friend of hers. A. whose B. who C. whom D. which
  3. Because of my poor memory, all you told me has been forgotten. A. that B. which C. what D. as
  4. Do you remember those days we spent along the seashore very happily? A. when B. where C. which D. who
  5. Tom did not take away the camera because it was just the same camera he lost last week. A. which B. that C. whom D. as
  6. Those want to go please sign their names here. A. whom B. which C. who D. when
  7. Where is the man I met this morning? A. when B. where C. which D. who
  8. Who is the woman is sweeping the floor over there? A. who B. / C. that D. when
  9. The man you talked just now is a worker. A. who B. whom C. to whom D. to who
  10. The man you are going to make friends is my father’s neighbour. A. with whom B. when C. to whom D. which
  11. The doctor is leaving for Africa next month. A. the nurse is talking to him B. whom the nurse is talking C. the nurse is talking to D. who the nurse is talking
  12. The man around our school is from America. A. which you showed B. you showed him C. you showed D. where you showed
  13. He talked about a hero no one had ever heard. A. of whom B. from whom C. about that D. who
  14. In fact the Swede did not understand the three questions were asked in French. A. where B. who C. in which D. which
  15. Have you read the book I lent to you? A. that B. whom C. when D. whose
  16. Finally, the thief handed over everything he had stolen to the police. A. that B. which C. whatever D. all
  17. The foreign guests, were government officials, were warmly welcomed at the airport. A. most of them B. most of that C. most of whom D. most of those
  18. This is the very letter came last night. A. who B. which C. that D. as
  19. I know only a little about this matter; you may ask knows better than I. A. whoever B. whomever C. anyone D. the one 24

  20. This is the school we visited three days ago. A. where B. / C. when D. what
  21. This is the factory we worked a year ago. A. where B. that C. which D. on which
  22. Nearby were two canoes they had come to the island. A. which B. in which C. that D. /
  23. Jack is pleased with you have given him and all you have told him. A. that, what B. what, that C. which, what D. that, which
  24. Do you work near the building colour is yellow? A. that B. which C. its D. whose
  25. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person she could turn for help. A. whom B. who C. to whom D. form whom
  26. Is this school we visited three years ago? A. the one B. which C. that D. where
  27. Is this the school we visited three years ago? A. the one B. where C. in which D. / 28, How many students are there in your class homes are in the country? A. whose B. who C. whom D. which
  29. Alice received an invitation from her boss, came as a surprise. A. it B. which C. that D. he
  30. The train was crowded and I had to get into a carriage already seven other people. A. when there were B. which there were C. that there were D. where there were
  31. I live in the house windows face south. A. which B. whose C. where D. in that
  32. What game is popular with them? The most is tennis. A. game they like it B. game they like C. best game they like D. best game they like it
  33. They stayed with me three weeks, they drank all the wine I had. A. which B. which time C. during which time D. during which
  34. The room Mr White lives is not very large. A. that B. which C. where D. when
  35. Don’t forget the day you were received into the Youth League. A. when B. that C. at which D. where
  36. I’ve finished writing the novel, is to be published next month. A. that B. what C. which D. when
  37. He returned home safe and sound after a fierce battle, was unexpected. A. which B. as C. that D. it
  38. we is known to all, English is not very difficult to learn. A. What B. As C. That D. Which 25

  39. The old man had three sons, all of died during World War Ⅱ. A. whose B. that C. whom D. who
  40. I have bought two pens, write well. A. none of which B. neither of which C. both of which D. all of which
  41. Do you know the reason she has changed her mind? A. why B. which C. for that D. of which
  42. He failed in the exam, proves that he wasn’t working hard enough. A. which B. what C. it D. that
  43. During the week he tried to collect materials for his article. A. following B. followed C. to follow D. that followed
  44. was expected, he succeeded in the exam. A. It B. Which C. As D. That
  45. He studied hard and later became a well-known writer, his father expected. A. that was what B. what was that C. and which was D. which was what
  46. We should read such books will make us better and wiser. A. when B. as C. whose D. what
  47. You must show my wife the same respect you show me. A. when B. as C. whose D. what
  48. He is absent is often the case. A. what B. which C. who D. as
  49. It is the first time I have come to your city. A. that B. which C. what D. when
  50. Who has the same idea as it will do it in this way. A. who B. that C. whom D. which
  51. I shall never forget those years I lived in the country with the farmers, has a great effect on my life. A. that, which B. when, which C. which, that D. when, who
  52. This is the only book I can find. A. that B. which C. it D. with which
  53. I don’t like you speak to her. A. the way B. the way in that C. the way which D. the way of which
  54. That is one of those books that worth reading. A. is B. are C. has D. have
  55. This is the only one of the students whose handwriting the best. A. is B. are C. has D. have
  56. There was to prevent the accident. A. something could do B. anything we could do C. nothing we couldn’t do D. nothing we could do 26
 

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