8 级测试
英译汉部分; ?? 1996?2010 年英语专业 8 级统考题中英译汉试题评析 【1996 年 8 级测试英译汉 级测试英译汉】 Four months before Election Day1, five men gathered in a small conference room at the Reagan-Bush headquarters2 and reviewed an oversize calendar that marked the remaining days of the 1984 presidential campaign. It was the last Saturday in June and at ten o’clock in the morning the rest of the office was practically deserted
  3. Even so, the men kept the door shut and the drapes carefully drawn. The three principals and their two deputies had come from around the country for a critical meeting
  4. Their aim was to devise a strategy5 that would guarantee Ronald Reagan’s resounding reelection to a second term in the White House. It should have been easy. They were battle-tested veterans6 with long ties to Reagan and even longer ties to the Republican Party, men who understood presidential politics7 as well as any in the country. The backdrop8 of the campaign was hospitable, with lots of good news to work with: America was at peace, and
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the nation’s economy, a key factor in any election, was rebounding vigorously after recession. Furthermore, the campaign itself was lavishly financed9, with plenty of money for a top-flight staff10, travel, and television commercials. And, most important, their candidate was Ronald Reagan, a president of tremendous personal popularity and dazzling communication skills
  11. Reagan has succeeded more than any president since John F. Kennedy in projecting a broad vision of America?a nation of renewed military strength, individual initiative, and smaller federal government
  12. 【概述】 概述】 本文是一篇典型的关于美国政治的时事杂文, 用词色彩强 烈,修饰语具有极端性和渲染性的特点。翻译这类文章时, 伸缩性较大,适宜文采的容忍度较大。翻译中涉及被动语态 译法、转译法等。 【翻译要点评析】 翻译要点评析】 Election Day :美国的总统“选举日” 。 Reagan-Bush headquarters:里根?布什竞选总部。 the rest of the office was practically deserted:“desert”意 为离弃、放弃此方式,翻译时如不特别强调施动者,一般 译为主动句,即“其他办公室几乎没有人”。 critical meeting:“critical”有“批评的、危机的、决定性
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的”意思,此处“决定性的”,译为“重要会议”。 devise a strategy:“devise”意为“想出、设计、发明”, 此处根据“strategy”一词译为“制定策略”。 battle-tested veterans:久经沙场的老将;在战场上受过考 验的老将。 presidential politics:总统竞选的套路。 backdrop:意为背景、大环境,此处译为“条件”。 the campaign itself was lavishly financed:该句为被动句, 翻译时应该转为主动语态,即“这次竞选筹到了充裕 的资金”。 a top-flight staff: top-flight=best, first rate, staff 此处指 “竞 选班子”。 a president of tremendous personal popularity and dazzling communication skills:此句为名词性短语,作 Ronald Reagan 的同位语,若直译即“一位极具个人魅力和沟 通技巧的总统。”但考虑到中文不易用修饰成份过长 的表达方式,可将此同位语转译为一个单独的句子, 即“他极具个人魅力,精通沟通技巧。” a nation of renewed military strength, individual initiative, and smaller federal government:译法同上,可转译“国 家军事力量复兴,国人积极进取,政府机构精简。” 【参考译文 参考译文】 参考译文
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离选举日还有四个月,五个人聚集在里根?布什竞选总 部的一个小型会议室里,看着一张硕大的日历,1984年总统 竞选剩下的日子清晰地标了出来。这是六月份的最后一个星 期六,早晨10点,其他办公室几乎无人。即使这样,他们仍 紧闭大门,严拉窗帘。三个主要人物和两个副手从全国各地 赶来,聚在这里召开一个重要会议,旨在制定出一套策略, 以确保里根再次当选总统,入主白宫。 再次当选应该不是件难事。他们久经沙场,跟随里根多 年,为共和党干的时间更长,没有谁比他们更熟悉总统竞选 那一套儿。另外,竞选条件也十分有利,很多好消息可供炒 作。例如,美国上下一片和平,经济这一永恒的竞选要素也 在经过一段时间的衰退之后开始强劲反弹。此外,这次竞选 本身得到了慷慨资助,足以支付一流竞选班子、巡回演讲以 及电视广告的费用。最重要的是,他们的候选人是罗纳 德 ? 里根, 他极具个人魅力, 精通沟通技巧。 自约翰 ? F ? 肯 尼迪总统以来,里根最成功地勾勒出美国蓝图:国家军事力 量复兴,国人积极进取,政府机构精简。
【1997 年 8 级测试英译汉 1997 级测试英译汉】 Opera is expensive: that much is inevitable.1 But expensive things are not inevitably the province of the rich unless we abdicate society’s power of choice. 2 We can choose to make
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opera, and other expensive forms of culture, accessible to those who cannot individually pay for it. 3 The question is: why should we? Nobody denies the imperatives of food, shelter, defense, health and education. 4 But even in a prehistoric cave, mankind stretched out a hand not just to eat, drink or fight, but also to draw. 5 The impulse towards culture, the desire to express and explore the world through imagination and representation is fundamental. 6 In Europe, this desire has found fulfillment in the masterpieces of our music, art, literature and theatre. These masterpieces are the touchstones7 for all our efforts; they are the touchstones for the possibilities to which human thought and imagination may aspire; they carry the most profound messages that can be sent from one human to another.8 【概述】 概述】 这是一篇典型的关于美国政治的时事杂文,用词色彩强 烈,修饰语具有极端性和渲染性的特点。翻译这类文章时, 伸缩性较大,适宜文采的容忍度较大。这篇文章理解起来不 难,但翻译时却发现不好用贴切的汉语表达,因此在处理这 样表面看起来比较容易但难翻译的文章时,注意一定不要拘 泥于英文的表达形式。本文翻译中涉及长句译法、定语从句 译法,以及增词法、转译法等。 【翻译要点评析】 翻译要点评析】
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Opera is expensive: that much is inevitable:若直译即“歌 剧很贵,那种贵不可避免。 ”但读者要问“是听歌剧很 贵还是演歌剧很贵?”因此,在“歌剧”前要加具体 动词,根据上下文,可以看出“听歌剧”比较恰当。 But expensive things are not inevitably the province of the rich unless we abdicate society’s power of choice: province 意为“领域、范围”;abdicate 意为“放弃”。 society’s power of choice 如果直译,即“社会的选择 权”,但这样翻译有些抽象,可采用意译法,即“社 会左右选择的力量”。 We can choose to make opera, and other expensive forms of culture, accessible to those who cannot individually pay for it: to make something accessible to someone 使某人 也能得到某事(物),因此全句可译为“使歌剧和其 他形式的高消费文化也能让那些作为个体消费不起的 人们所享受。” Nobody denies the imperatives of food, shelter, defense, health and education:the imperatives of food, shelter, defense, health and education 意思为“食物、居所、防 护、健康与教育这些必需的事物”,翻译时可将 imperatives 名词词性转为动词,即“食物、居所、防 护、健康与教育缺一不可”。全句直译即“没有人否
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认食物、居所、防护、健康与教育的不可或缺性”。 但这是英文表达,英译汉时必须将其用通顺的汉语表 达方式,因此翻译时可采用正话反说,反话正说法, 即“食物、居所、防护、健康与教育缺一不可,这一 点人人认可。” But even in a prehistoric cave, mankind stretched out a hand not just to eat, drink or fight, but also to draw:此句用了 “not just…, but also…”固定表达,一般译为“不 仅……,而且……”。 The impulse towards culture, the desire to express and explore the world through imagination and representation is fundamental:此句为典型的英语主语部分过长的句 子,为了避免头重脚轻,翻译时可将主语部分独立出 来,即变成外位语的形式,同时运用转译法,将 fundamental 形容词词性转为名词词性即“人性的根 本”。 touchstones:试金石。 they are the touchstones for the possibilities to which human thought and imagination may aspire; they carry the most profound messages that can be sent from one human to another:这两句都包含一个定语从句,第一句的定语 从句可以按照原结构直译,即“人类思想和想象力可
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及程度的试金石”,但第二句的定语从句需要用分译 法分译出来,即“它们承载着最深刻的信息,使之在 人类成员之间传播。” 【参考译文 参考译文】 参考译文 聆听歌剧,无疑昂贵至极。但是,昂贵的东西并不是非 富人莫属, 除非我们放弃社会的选择权。 我们可以做出选择, 使歌剧和其他形式的高消费文化也能让那些作为个体消费 不起的人们所享受。但问题是,有必要这么做吗?食物、居 所、防护、健康与教育缺一不可,这一点人人认可。即便史 前,住在洞穴中的人类伸出手来,不仅为了吃饭、喝水或搏 杀,也为了作画。对于文化的冲动,对于通过形象思维和再 现手段来表达并探索世界的欲望,这是人的本性。在欧洲, 这一欲望反映在音乐、绘画、文学和戏剧之类的艺术杰作之 中。这些杰作是我们全部成果的试金石,是人类思想和想象 力可及程度的试金石。它们承载着最深刻的信息,使之在人 类成员之间传播。
测试英译汉】 【1998 年 8 级测试英译汉】
I agree to some extent with my imaginary English reader. American literary historians are perhaps prone to view their own national scene too narrowly, mistaking prominence for
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uniqueness. They do over-phrase1 their own literature, or certainly its minor figures. And Americans do swing from aggressive over-phrase of their literature to an equally unfortunate, imitative deference.
2
But then, the English
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themselves are somewhat insular in their literary appraisals.
Moreover, in fields where they are not pre-eminent?e. g. in painting and music?they too alternate between boasting of native products and copying those of the Continent. How many English paintings try to look as though they were done in Paris; how many times have we read in articles that they really represent an “English tradition” after all. To speak of American literature, then, is not to assert that it is completely unlike that of Europe. Broadly speaking, America and Europe have kept step
  4. At any given moment5 the traveler could find examples in both of the same architecture, the same styles in dress, the same books on the shelves. Ideas have crossed the Atlantic as freely as men and merchandise, though sometimes more slowly. When I refer to American habit, thoughts, etc., I intend some sort of qualification to precede the word, for frequently the difference between America and Europe (especially England) will be one of degree, sometimes only of a small degree. The amount of divergence is a subtle
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affair, liable to perplex6 the Englishman when he looks at America. He is looking at a country which in important senses grew out of his own, which in several ways still resembles his own ? and which is yet a foreign country.7 There are odd overlappings and abrupt unfamiliarities; kinship yields to a sudden alienation, as when we hail a person across the street, only to discover from his blank response that we have mistaken a stranger for a friend. 8 【概述】 概述】 本文是一篇典型的学术型语篇,属于半口语型的学术语 言。用词正式,句法简单,同时又口语感很强,读起来朗朗 上口。对于这类语篇的理解,一般需要一定的专业知识。 【翻译要点评析】 翻译要点评析】 over-phrase: 过分渲染, 言过其实; over 作为前缀意为 “过 分地”,如 overestimate 过高估计,表示过低用 under, 如 underestimate 低估。 And Americans do swing from aggressive over-phrase of their literature to an equally unfortunate, imitative deference:此句翻译的关键在于正确理解原句意思, 因此需要对原文结构进行改写,即“Americans do swing from aggressive over-phrase of their literature to imitative deference, which is an equally unfortunate.”其
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中 swing from … to 意为摇摆不定,忽左忽右,可译 为“要么…要么…”;根据改写后的原句结构,我们 可以将原句译为 “美国人确实也走极端,要么咄咄逼 人,对本国文学大肆渲染,要么亦步亦趋,对别国文 学顶礼膜拜。这两种做法同样的不幸。” But
 

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