考研 1 号英语话题写作第一书《写作 160 篇》连续 5 年命中写作原题
>01 Television Television -- the most pervasive and persuasive of modern technologies, marked by rapid change and growth -- is moving into a new era, an era of extraordinary sophistication and versatility, which promises to reshape our lives and our world. It is an electronic revolution of sorts, made possible by the marriage of television and computer technologies. The word "television", derived from its Greek (tele: distant) and Latin (visio: sight) roots, can literally be interpreted as sight from a distance. Very simply put, it works in this way: through a sophisticated system of electronics, television provides the capability of converting an image(focused on a special photoconductive plate within a camera) into electronic impulses, which can be sent through a wire or cable. These impulses, when fed into a receiver (television set), can then be electronically reconstituted into that same image. Television is more than just an electronic system, however. It is a means of expression, as well as a vehicle for communication, and as such becomes a powerful tool for reaching other human beings. The field of television can be divided into two categories determined by its means of transmission. First, there is broadcast television, which reaches the masses through broad-based airwave transmission of television signals. Second, there is nonbroadcast television, which provides for the needs of individuals or specific interest groups through controlled transmission techniques. Traditionally, television has been a medium of the masses. We are most familiar with broadcast television because it has been with us for about thirty-seven years in a form similar to what exists today. During those years, it has been controlled, for the most part, by the broadcast networks, ABC, NBC, and CBS, who have been the major purveyors of news, information, and entertainment. These giants of broadcasting have actually shaped not only television but our perception of it as well. We have come to look upon the picture tube as a source of entertainment, placing our role in this dynamic medium as the passive viewer. 电视电视--以快速变化与发展为标志的最普遍、最具有影响力的一项现代技术,正在步 入一个极端复杂化与多 样化的新时代。 这个时代承诺重新塑造我们的生活和我们的世界。 这可以称得上是又一次电子革命,其关键在于电视技术与计算机 技术的结合。"电视"这个词 来源于希腊语词根(tele:远)和拉丁语词根(vision:景象),可以从字面上理解为来自远处 的 景象。 简单说来,电视是以这种方式工作的,通过一个复杂的电子系统,电视能够将一幅 图像(这幅图像被聚焦在一部摄像 机内的一块特殊的光导底片上)转换成能经过导线或电缆 发送出去的电子脉冲信号。 当这些电子脉冲信号被输入一部接收机(电视机)时,就可以用 电子学的方法把脉冲信号重新恢复成同一幅图像。但 是,电视不仅仅是一个电子系统,它还是一种表达工具和传播渠道。 因此,电视成了一个对其他人发生影响的强大 工具。电视这 个领域可以根据其发射方式分为两类。 第一类为广播电视,通过电视信号的宽带无线电波 发射展现在大众面前;第二类为非广播电视,使用受控的发射技 术来满足个人以及某些特殊利益群体的需要。电视早已成为大众媒介。 我们熟悉广播电视,因为广播电视已经以类 似 目前的方式存在了大约 37 年。 在那些年头中,电视绝大部分一直由 ABC、NBC、CBS 这 些广播电视公司控制着,这些广播电视公司一直是新闻、 信息和娱乐的主要提供者。 这些 广播业的巨头实际上不仅塑造了电视,而且也塑造了我们对电视的理解。 我们 渐渐把显像 管看作是娱乐的来源,让自己成为这个生动的媒介的被动观众。 >02 Andrew Carnegie
《写作 160 篇》全面涵盖当年可考话题,经典话题精心选材, 文章分类层次清晰,范文重点句式详细点评。
考研 1 号英语话题写作第一书《写作 160 篇》连续 5 年命中写作原题
Andrew Carnegie, known as the King of Steel, built the steel industry in the United States, and, in the process, became one of the wealthiest men in America. His success resulted in part from his ability to sell the product and in part from his policy of expanding during periods of economic decline, when most of his competitors were reducing their investments. Carnegie believed that individuals should progress through hard work, but he also felt strongly that the wealthy should use their fortunes for the benefit of society. He opposed charity, preferring instead to provide educational opportunities that would allow others to help themselves. "He who dies rich, dies disgraced, " he often said. Among his more noteworthy contributions to society are those that bear his name, including the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh, which has a library, a museum of fine arts, and a museum of national history. He also founded a school of technology that is now part of Carnegie-Mellon University. Other philanthropic gifts are the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace to promote understanding between nations, the Carnegie Institute of Washington to fund scientific research, and Carnegie Hall to provide a center for the arts. Few Americans have been left untouched by Andrew Carnegie's generosity. His contributions of more than five million dollars established 2,500 libraries in small communities throughout the country and formed the nucleus of the public library system that we all enjoy today. 安德鲁?卡内基 被称作钢铁大王的安德鲁?卡内基在美国建立了钢铁工业。 在这个过 程中,他变成了美国最富有 的人之一。 他的成功,部分来自于他销售产品的能力,部分来 自于经济萧条时期的扩充策略。 在萧条时期,他的多数对手都 在缩减投资。卡内基认为个 人应该通过努力工作来获得进展,但他也强烈地感到有钱人应该运用他们的财富来为社 会谋 取福利。 他反对施舍救济,更愿意提供教育机会,使别人自立。 卡内基经常说:"富有着 死去的人死得可耻。"他对社会的较重要的贡献都以他的名字命名。 这些贡献包括匹兹堡卡 内基学校。 这个学校有一个图书馆,一个美术馆和一个国家历史博物馆;他还创立了一所 技术学校,这所学校现在是卡内基 梅隆大学的一部分;其他的慈善捐赠有为促进国家间了 解的"卡内基国际和平基金",为科学研究提供经费的华 盛顿卡内基学院以及给各种艺术活动 提供活动中心的卡内基音乐厅。安德鲁?卡内基的慷慨大度几乎影响到每个美 国人的生活。 由于他超过五百万美元的捐款,2500 个图书馆得以建立起来,遍布在美国各地的小村镇, 形成了我 们今天还在享用的公共图书馆系统的核心。 >03 American Revolution The American Revolution was not a revolution in the sense of a radical or total change. It was not a sudden and violent overturning of the political and social framework, such as later occurred in France and Russia, when both were already independent nations. Significant changes were ushered in, but they were not breathtaking. What happened was accelerated evolution rather than outright revolution. During the conflict itself people went onworking and praying, marrying and playing. Most of them were not seriously disturbed by the actual fighting, and many of the more isolated communities scarcely knew that a war was on. America's War of Independence heralded the birth of three modern nations. One was Canada, which received its first large influx of English-speaking population from the thousands of loyalists who fled there from the United States. Another was Australia, which became a penal colony now that America was no longer available for prisoners and debtors. The third newcomer -- the United States -- based itself squarely on republican principles. Yet even the political overturn was not so revolutionary as one might suppose. In some states, notably Connecticut
《写作 160 篇》全面涵盖当年可考话题,经典话题精心选材, 文章分类层次清晰,范文重点句式详细点评。
考研 1 号英语话题写作第一书《写作 160 篇》连续 5 年命中写作原题
and Rhode Island, the war largely ratified a colonial self-rule already existing. British officials, everywhere ousted, were replaced by a home-grown governing class, which promptly sought a local substitute for king and Parliament. 美国革命 美国革命其实并不算是一场革命,因为它并未导致完全的和彻底的变化。 这 次革命并不是对政治和社会框架的一次突然和猛烈的颠覆,象后来在已经是独立国家的法国 和俄国所爆发的革命那 样。 革命带来了重大的变化,但并非翻天覆地,所发生的只是进化 的加速,而不是一场彻底的革命;在冲突期间,人们 仍然上班、做礼拜、结婚、玩耍。 多数人并没有受到实际战斗的严重影响。 许多较闭塞的社区对这场战争几乎一 无所知。美国 独立战争宣布了三个现代国家的诞生,其中一个是加拿大。 加拿大的第一大批讲英语的流 入人口来自于成千上万英王的效忠者, 这些人从美国逃到了加拿大。 另一个国家是 澳大利 亚, 因为美国不再是容纳罪犯和欠债者的国度了, 澳大利亚就变成了一个惩治罪犯的殖民地(注: 独立战争前, 英国政府将罪犯流放到美国)。 第三个国家就是美国,它完全建立在共和原则基础上。即使政治上的颠覆也不如人 们可能想象的那样具有革命性。 在一些州,特 别是康涅狄格和罗德岛,战争基本上只是承认了已经存在的殖民地 的自治。 四处被驱逐的 英国官员都被本土的统治阶级所替代,这个统治阶级迅速地以地方权力机关来替代国王和议 会。 >04 Suburbanization If by "suburb" is meant an urban margin that grows more rapidly than its already developed interior, the process of suburbanization began during the emergence of the industrial city in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Before that period the city was a small highly compact cluster in which people moved about on foot and goods were conveyed by horse and cart. But the early factories built in the 1830's and 1840's were located along waterways and near railheads at the edges of cities, and housing was needed for the thousands of people drawn by the prospect of employment. In time, the factories were surrounded by proliferating mill towns of apartments and row houses that abutted the older, main cities. As a defense against this encroachment and to enlarge their tax bases, the cities appropriated their industrial neighbors. In1854, for example, the city of Philadelphia annexed most of Philadelphia County. Similar municipal maneuvers took place in Chicago and in New York. Indeed, most great cities of the United States achieved such status only by incorporating the communities along their borders. With the acceleration of industrial growth came acute urban crowding and accompanying social stress -- conditions that began to approach disastrous proportions when, in 1888, the first commercially successful electric traction line was developed. Within a few years the horse-drawn trolleys were retired and electric streetcar networks crisscrossed and connected every major urban area, fostering a wave of suburbanization that transformed the compact industrial city into a dispersed metropolis.This first phase of mass-scale suburbanization was reinforced by the simultaneous emergence of the urban Middle Class, whose desires for homeownership in neighborhoods far from the aging inner city were satisfied by the developers of single-family housing tracts. 郊区的发展 如果"郊区"指的是比已建好的城市内部发展更为迅速的城市边缘地带,那 么郊区化可以说始于 1825 年至 1850 年工业化城市出现期间。 在这之前,城市只是高度密 集的小聚居群。 在其中,人们步行走动,商品靠马车来运送。 但是建于 18 世纪三 四十年 代的早期工厂位于城边的航道和铁路附近,被工作机会吸引到这里的成千上万的人们需要住房。 渐渐地,在 与旧有的主要城区相毗邻的地方,不断涌现出由排房和公寓楼组成的工人 聚居区,包围了工厂。作为对这种侵蚀的 自卫,也为了扩大它们收税的地域范围,城市吞并 了工业化的临近地带,比如 1854 年费城的城区就兼并了费县的 绝大部分地区。 相似的城市 化也发生在芝加哥和纽约。 今天很多美国的大城市其实就是靠吞并它们附近的边缘地
《写作 160 篇》全面涵盖当年可考话题,经典话题精心选材, 文章分类层次清晰,范文重点句式详细点评。
考研 1 号英语话题写作第一书《写作 160 篇》连续 5 年命中写作原题
区而 变成大都会的。随着工业化的加速发展,城市里出现了严重
 

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